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North Africa

West Africa

Central Africa

East Africa

South Africa

Morocco

Algeria

Tunisia

Libya

Egypt

Mauritania

Mali

Niger

Chad

The Sudan

South Sudan

Senegal

The Gambia

guinea_bissau

Guinea

Sierra Leone

Liberia

Côte d'Ivoire

Burkina Faso

Ghana

Togo

Benin

Nigeria

Cabo Verde

Cameroon

Central African Republic

Equatorial Guinea

Gabon

Congo, Brazzaville

Congo, Kinshasa

Sao Tome & Principe

Uganda

Rwanda

Burundi

Eritrea

Djibouti

Ethiopia

Somalia

Kenya

Tanzania

Malawi

Mozambique

Madagascar

Comoros

Seychelles

Mauritius

Angola
Zambia

Namibia
Botswana
Zimbabwe
South Africa
Swaziland
Lesotho

* Ivory Coast see : Côte d'Ivoire   * Congo, RC see : Congo, Brazzaville   *Congo, DRC see : Congo, Kinshasa

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Morocco ( Kingdom of Morocco )
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1063 Part of the Almoravid Sultanate to 1269.
1268 Mernid dynasty begins rule ( Moroc ).
1555 Saadian dynasty begins rule.
1415 Ceuta taken by Portugal ( from 1580, Spanish ).
1496 Melilla taken by Spain.
1666 Sharifi Moroccan State, the A`lawi Filali Sharifi dynasty, begins rule.
1860 Morocco cedes Western Sahara and Ifni to Spain.
1860 Spanish occupy the Rif and Tetouan to 1862.
1907 French occupation to 1912.
1910 Spain occupies northern Morocco.
1912 French protectorate and Spanish protectorate in so-called Spanish Zone to 1956.
1912 City of Tangier an international protectorate to 1956.
1940 French Morocco administration loyal to Vichy France to 1942.
1957 Kingdom of Morocco
1958 Spain returns Southern Protectorate ( Tarfaya area; formerly attached spanish Western Sahara ).
1976 Morocco and Mauritania partition Western Sahara.
1979 Mauritanian part of Western Sahara annexed by Morocco.

@ 1660 1915 Now

Western Sahara ( Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic )
@ 1860 Morocco cedes Western Sahara ( Río de Oro and Ifni ) to Spain.
1884 Spanish West Africa
1885 Río de Oro Spanish protectorate.
1887 Río de Oro Dependent Protectorate.
1904 Saguia el Hamra and zone of Tarfaya to the Draa Wadi annexed.
1912 Tarfaya part of Spanish Morocco protectorate.
1912 Part of Spanish West Africa ( Spanish Morocco, Ifni, Río de Oro ) to 1958.
1958 Overseas province of Spain ( Spanish Sahara ).
1958 Tarfaya restored to Morocco.
1974 Autonomy granted, but not implemented.
1976 Spain announces it has transferred sovereignty to Morocco.
1976 Spanish Sahara is partitioned by Morocco and Mauritania (Tiris El Gharbia).
1976 Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic proclaimed by Polisario Front.
1979 Mauritanian part of the territory annexed by Morocco.
1991 United Nations monitored cease-fire implemented.
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Unknown 1976 Now


Algeria ( People's Democratic Algerian Republic )
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  944 Algiers founded.
1536 Province of the Ottoman Empire.
1671 Rule of semi-autonomous Deys.
1711 Deys recognized as governors by the Ottomans.
1830 Algiers taken by France ( French Possessions in North Africa ).
1832 Emirate of Mascara established in revolt by Abdelkedir to 1847.
1837 Constantine taken by France.
1839 French Algerian Possessions.
1842 French military province, called Algeria.
1848 Algeria declared a French territory.
1881 Algeria, Bone, and Constantine made départements of France.
1900 Administrative autonomy granted.
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1942.
1946 Autonomy
1958 Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic.
1962 Independence from France ( Algerian State ).
1962 People's Democratic Algerian Republic

@ Unknown 1830 1830 1962 Now

Tunisia ( Tunisian Republic )
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1574 Incorporated into Ottoman Empire, with varying and ultimately increased autonomy.
1705 Tunisian Regency under de facto hereditary Husayni dynasty.
1871 While continuing to recognize nominal Osmanli suzerainty, the Bey ceases paying tribute.
1881 Tunisia becomes a French protectorate by treaty.
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1943.
1942 Occupied by Germany to 1943.
1955 Autonomous.
1956 French protectorate terminated. State styled Tunisian Realm ( al-Mamlaka at-Tunisiyya- literally Tunisian Kingdom ).
1957 Tunisian Republic

@ Unknown 1830 1835 1881 1885

1999 Now


Libya ( Libyan Republic )
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1521 Cyrenaica part of the Ottoman Empire.
1551 Tripolitania part of the Ottoman Empire.
1711 Tripoli Regency under de facto hereditary Qaramanli dynasty.
1835 Direct Ottoman rule restored.
1911 Independent government in Tripolitania.
1911 Italian occupation.
1912 Ceded to Italy by the Ottoman Empire.
1918 Tripolitanian Republic to 1923.
1922 Annexed to Italy.
1934 Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Fezzan united as Libya.
1942 Tripolitania and Cyrenaica occupied by Britain, Fezzan occupied by France.
1943 End of Italian rule.
1946 Libya a United Nations mandate ( under British and French administration ).
1951 Independence as United Libyan Kingdom.
1963 Libyan Kingdom ( federal arrangement abolished ).
1969 Libyan Arab Republic

1972 Federation of Arab Republics to 1977. ( Egypt, Libya and Syria )
1977 Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
1986 Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

2011 Libyan Republic

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1951 1947 1911 Unknown

1969 1972 1977 2011 Now


Egypt ( Arab Republic of Egypt )
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3100 BC Upper and Lower Egypt united ( Kingdom of Egypt ) ruled by Pharaohs.
1630 BC Northern Egypt under "Hyksos" rule to 1520 BC.
  670 BC Part of the Assyrian Empire to 612 BC.
  520 BC Part of the Persian Empire to 404 BC.
  343 BC Part of the Persian Empire to 332 BC.
  332 BC Conquered by Macedonia under Alexander "the Great".
  323 BC Ptolemic dynasty begins rule.
    30 BC Part of the Roman Empire.
  395 AD Part of the Byzantine Empire.
  641 Arab Muslim conquest.
1250 Mameluke Sultanate.
1517 Egypt a province of the Ottoman Empire.
1768 De facto Mameluke Beylicate to 1804 ( under Ottoman suzerainty ).
1798 French occupation to 1801.
1798 Beginning of conquest of Upper Egypt.
1799 French Egypt is divided in provinces headed by a French military governor.
1800 Upper Egypt is ceded to the Mameluke Murad Bey ( officially under french suzerainty ).
1801 British occupation to 1803.
1805 Muhammad `Ali dynasty informally inaugurated.
1821 Annexation of the Sudan to 1885.
1831 Egypt annexes Syria and Palestine to 1840.
1867 Khediviate of Egypt ( under Ottoman suzerainty ).
1882 Britain administers the Suez Canal to 1956.
1882 Occupied by Britain ( formally still under Ottoman suzerainty ).
1882 British protectorate to 1936.
1906 Sinai peninsula transferred to Egypt by Ottoman Empire.
1914 Egyptian Sultanate ( under British protection ).
1922 End of British protectorate.
1922 Egyptian Kingdom
1953 Republic of Egypt
1956 Sinai peninsula and Gaza Strip occupied by Israel to 1957.
1958 United Arab Republic ( united with Syria to 1961 ).
1958 Part of United Arab States federation with Yemen ( Sana ) to 1961.
1963 Proposed Arab Socialist Union with Egypt, Iraq and Syria. ( The agreement was not carried out )

1967 Sinai peninsula occupied by Israel to 1982.

1971 Arab Republic of Egypt

1972 Federation of Arab Republics to 1977. ( Egypt, Libya and Syria )

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Unknown Unknown 1867 1914

1923 1953 1958 1972 1984 Now


Mauritania ( Islamic Republic of Mauritania )
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1903 French protectorate of Mauritania.
1904 French civil territory of Mauritania ( part of French West Africa ).
1920 French colony
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1942.
1946 Mauritania overseas territory of France.
1958 Autonomy, Islamic Republic of Mauritania.
1960 Independence from France.
1976 Annexes southwestern Western Sahara to 1979.

@ 1903 1953 2017 Now

Mali ( Republic of Mali )
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1880 French territory of Haut-Sénégal ( Upper Senegal ) created ( subordinated to Senegal ).
1890 Renamed French Sudan Territory.
1895 Part of French West Africa.
1899 French Sudan broken up; part becomes territory of Haut-Sénégal-Niger ( Upper Senegal and Niger ).
1902 Becomes colony of Senegambia and Niger ( subject to Senegal ).
1904 Renamed Haut-Sénégal-Niger ( Upper Senegal and Niger ).
1920 Renamed French Sudan.
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1942.
1946 French Sudan overseas territory of France.
1958 Autonomy ( Sudanese Republic ).
1959 Sudanese Republic and Senegal unite to form the Mali Federation.
1960 Independence of the Mali Federation from France.
1960 Senegal withdraws from Mali Federation.
1960 Sudanese Republic renamed Republic of Mali.

@ 1880 1958 1959 1961 Now

Niger ( Republic of Niger )
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1900 French military territory of Zinder; part of French West Africa.
1910 Niger military territory.
1920 Niger territory.
1922 French colony ( Niger ).
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1942.
1946 Niger overseas territory of France.
1958 Autonomy, Republic of Niger.
1960 Independence from France.

@ 1900 1959 Now

Chad ( Republic of Chad )
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1900 French Military Territory and Protectorate of Chad.
1902 Chad Protectorate
1906 Chad Territory part of Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony.
1910 Chad, Middle Congo ( now Congo [Brazzaville] ), Oubangui-Chari, and Gabon form French Equatorial Africa [AEF].
1916 Chad territory ( Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony dissolved, part of AEF colony ).
1920 Chad colony ( part of AEF colony ).
1937 Chad overseas territory of France ( part of AEF colony ).
1940 Administration loyal to Free French forces to 1945.
1946 Chad overseas territory of France ( part of AEF colony ).
1958 Autonomy, Republic of Chad.
1960 Independence from France.

@ 1900 1959 Now

 The Sudan ( Republic of the Sudan )
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1820 Egypt begins conquest.
1821/1822 Occupation and annexation by Egypt ( nominally under Ottoman suzerainty ).
1881 Mahdiya established ( Mahdi's "emergence" ).
1885 Egyptian Sudan fully occupied by the Mahdiya.
1898 Mahdiya extinguished by Britain.
1894 Lado district leased to the Belgian Congo to 1910.
1899 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan ( condominium ).
1952 Self-rule granted.
1956 Independence ( Republic of The Sudan ).
1969 Democratic Republic of The Sudan
1972 Southern provinces autonomous to 1983.
1983 Civil war erupts, large parts of the southern provinces under rebel control.
1985 Republic of the Sudan

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1821 1885 ... 1898 and

1914 and 1923 and

1953 and 1956 1970 Now


 South Sudan ( Republic of South Sudan )
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1871 Equatoria province of Egyptian Sudan (see Sudan).
1889 Part of the Mahdiya (see Sudan).
1898 Mahdiya extinguished by Britain.
1894 Lado district leased to the Belgian Congo to 1910.
1899 Part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (see Sudan).
1922 Aborted British plan to administer the southern provinces of The Sudan separately from the northern provinces to 1947.
1972 Self-government for the three Southern provinces (Southern Sudan Autonomous Region) to 1983.
          (included Equatoria, Bahr al-Ghazal and Upper Nile, capital at Juba).
1983 Rebellion against the Sudanese government to 2005.
2005 Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan within The Sudan established.
2011 Referendum votes 98.83% for independence.
2011 Independence from Sudan (Republic of South Sudan).

@ 1871 1885 ... 1898 and

1914 and 1923 and

1953 and 1956 1970

2011 Now



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