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* Ivory Coast see : Côte d'Ivoire   * Congo, RC see : Congo, Brazzaville   *Congo, DRC see : Congo, Kinshasa

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Eritrea ( State of Eritrea )
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1557 Massawa part of Ottoman Empire to 1558.
1813 Occupied by Egypt ( both nominally part of Ottoman Empire ) to 1826.
1826 Direct Ottoman rule restored.
1865 Egyptian rule ( nominally part of Ottoman Empire ) to 1882.
1879 Asmara under Ethiopian rule to 1890.
1882 Port of Assab is taken over by the Italian government.
1885 Port of Massawa is taken over by Italy.
1888 Italian Assab Protectorate.
1890 Italian colony, Eritrea.
1936 Part of Italian East Africa ( province of Eritrea, formed by the merger of the colony and the Ethiopian region of Tigre ).
1941 British administration.
1951 United Nations administration, under Britain.
1952 Federated with Ethiopia under the sovereignty of the Ethiopian crown ( Eritrean Autonomous State ).
1962 Integral part of Ethiopia; autonomy revoked ( Eritrea province ).
1991 Provisional government established ( de facto independence ).
1993 Independence,  State of Eritrea.

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Unknown 1855 1941 1952 1952

1962 1991 1995 Now


Djibouti ( Republic of Djibouti )
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1858 First French settlement at Obock to 1859.
1862 France acquires port of Obock ( French Coast of Somalis ); unoccupied until 1883.
1884 Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura.
1888 French Somaliland
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1942.
1946 Status changed from colony to overseas territory.
1967 French Territory of the Afars and Issas.
1977 Independence from France, Republic of Djibouti.

@ 1862 1977 Now

Ethiopia ( Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia )
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  250 Empire of Axum to 950.
1117 Ethiopian Kingdom
????  Empire of Ethiopia
1889 Definitive incorporation of the Kingdom of Shewa into Ethiopia.
1889 Protectorate by Italy to 1896 ( Abissinian Italian Protectorate ); contested by Ethiopia.
1935 Italian invasion.
1936 Annexed by Italy.
1936 Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somalia are united into Italian East Africa.
1941 Last Italian administrators surrender.
1952 Federated with Eritrea.
1962 Eritrea annexed ( autonomy revoked ).
1974 Ethiopia ( semi-officially Socialist Ethiopia ).
1987 People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
1991 Ethiopia
1993 Eritrea independent.
1995 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

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1897 1936 1941 1974 1975

1987 1991 1996 Now


Somalia ( Somali Republic )
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1548 Zelia part of Ottoman Empire.
1877 Zeila annexed by Egypt ( Egyptian Somaliland ), both under nominal Ottoman suzerainty.
1884 British take over former Egyptian Somaliland.
1887 British Somaliland protectorate ( in the north ) subordinated to Aden to 1905.
1889 Benadir Coast Italian Protectorate ( in the north east ).
1905 Italian Somalia ( Italian Somaliland ) colony ( in the northeast and in the south ).
1910 Italian Somaliland a crown colony.
1935 Italian Somalia Part of Italian East Africa with It. Eritrea ( and from 1936 Ethiopia ) .
1936 Part of Italian East Africa, province of Somalia.
1940 Italian occupation of British Somaliland.
1941 British administration of Italian Somalia.
1950 Italian Somalia becomes United Nations trust territory under Italian administration.
1960 Independence of British Somaliland as the State of Somaliland.
1960 Unification of Somaliland with Italian Somalia to form the Somali Republic.
1969 Somali Democratic Republic
1991 Somalia collapses, no single functioning government.
1991 Secession of former British Somaliland; as Republic of Somaliland which is proclaimed 1991 ( not internationally recognized ).
1991 Somali Republic

2012 Federal Republic of Somalia

@ 1954 Now

Kenya ( Republic of Kenya )
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1885 German protectorate over Witu to 1890; contested by Britain.
1887 Sultan of Zanzibar grants coastal areas to the British East Africa Association.
1888 East Africa colony of the Imperial British East Africa Company.
1895 British East Africa Protectorate; including the coastal domains of Zanzibar which are also under U.K. protectorate.
1920 Kenya Colony and Protectorate.
1924 Jubaland ( or Trans-Juba ) ceded by Britain to Italy; part of Italian Somalia).
1963 Self-rule achieved.
1963 Independence from Britain, Kenya.
1964 Republic of Kenya

@ 1889 1895 1963 Now

Tanzania ( United Republic of Tanzania )
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1885 German East Africa Protectorate, protectorate over Witu in Kenya to 1890; contested by Britain.
1888 Germany obtains a lease of the coastal strip from the Sultan of Zanzibar.
1891 German East Africa colony.
1916 Belgian conquest of parts of German East Africa to 1916.
1916 British occupation of German East Africa begins; resisted by German forces on the move until 1918.
1919 Treaty with Britain: only Ruanda and Urundi remain under Belgian administration.
1920 Kionga triangle south of Rovuma River, under Portuguese occupation since 1918, ceded to Portuguese Mozambique.
1922 League of Nations mandate under Britain.
1946 Tanganyika a United Nations trust territory under Britain.
1961 Self-rule achieved.
1961 Independence, Tanganyika.
1962 Republic of Tanganyika
1964 United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
1964 United Republic of Tanzania

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1885 1891 1913 1916

1920 1960 1961 1964 Now


Malawi ( Republic of Malawi )
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1889 Shiré River Protectorate declared by Britain.
1891 Nyasaland Districts Protectorate
1893 British Central Africa Protectorate ( administered by British South Africa Company ).
1907 Nyasaland Protectorate
1953 Part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland to 1963.
1963 Nyasaland ( self-rule ).
1964 Independence from U.K. , Malawi.
1966 Republic of Malawi

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1889 1893 1914

1953 and 1963 1964

2010 2012 Now


Mozambique ( Republic of Mozambique )
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1498 Claimed by Portugal.
1501 Portuguese administration begins, Captaincy of Sofala ( subordinated to Goa ).
1507 Portuguese occupation of Mozambique Island; Captaincy of Sofala and Moçambique ( subordinated to Goa ).
1531 First Portuguese inland settlements.
1569 Captaincy-general of Moçambique
1609 Colony of Moçambique, Sofala, Ríos de Cuama, and Monomatapa.
1752 Moçambique, The Zambesi and Sofala a separate colony.
1836 Moçambique ( Portuguese East Africa ) Colony.
1951 Overseas province of Portugal.
1974 Local administration begins.
1975 Independence from Portugal, People's Republic of Mozambique.
1990 Republic of Mozambique

@ Unknown 1967 1974 1975 1983

1983 Now


Madagascar ( Republic of Madagascar )
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1817 King Radama I of Imerina, peace with Britain in which he is recognized as king of Madagascar.
1896 Kingdom of Imerina under French protectorate.
1897 French Madagascar colony
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1942.
1942 British occupation to 1946.
1946 Madagascar overseas territory of the French fourth republic.
1958 Autonomy, Malagasy Republic.
1960 Independence from France.
1975 Democratic Republic of Madagascar.
1992 Republic of Madagascar

@ 1817 1885 1896 1958 Now

Comoros ( Union of Comoros )
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1841 France annexes Mayotte.
1852 Andruna added to Mayotte protectorate.
1866 Anjouan added to Mayotte protectorate.
1886 Ruler of Bambao unifies the island of Ngazidja.
1886 Ngazidja ( together with Ndzuwani and Mwali ) become a French protectorates.
1887 Renamed Protectorate of the Comoros.
1908 Comoros a dependent territory of Madagascar.
1912 Annexed by France; part of Madagascar.
1914 Comoros subordinated to Madagascar ( Comoros dependent colony ).
1940 Administration loyal to Vichy France to 1942.
1942 British occupation to 1946.
1946 Comoros overseas territory of the France.
1961 Autonomy, State of Comoros.
1975 Independence, State of Comoros; Mayotte remains French.
1978 Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros ( Ngazidja, Ndzuwani, and Mwali ).
1997 Secession of Anjouan to 2002 ( Ndzuwani ) ( not internationally recognized).
1997 Secession of Mohéli to 1998 ( Mwali )( not internationally recognized ).
2001 New constitution approved by referendum, creating the Union of Comoros.

@ Unknown 1843 1963 1975 1978

1992 1996 2002 Now


Seychelles ( Republic of Seychelles )
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1609 First recorded landings take place ( by the English East India Company ).
1744 Explored by France named Îles de Labourdonnais.
1756 Annexed by France ( Îles de Séchelles ), but not settled until 1770.
1794 Occupied by Britain (F rench administration continues to 1810 ).
1810 British colony, Seychelles (subordinated to Mauritius).
1814 Formally ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris, colony of Seychelles.
1903 British crown colony
1965 Aldabra Islands part of British Indian Ocean Territory to 1976.
1970 Autonomy
1975 Seychelles self-rule.
1976 Independence from Britain, Republic of Seychelles.

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Unknown 1903 1961 1970

1976 1977 1996 Now


Mauritius ( Republic of Mauritius )
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1505 Discovered by the Portuguese ( Ilhado Cerne ).
1598 Claimed by the Dutch, but not settled.
1638 Dutch colony of Mauritius.
1658 Abandoned to 1664.
1710 Abandoned.
1718 Claimed by France ( Île de France ); under Compagnie des Indies rule.
1735 French Mascarene Islands colony to 1746 ( Île de France, Île Bourbon [Réunion] and Séchelles ).
1722 Renamed Île de France.
1767 French crown colony.
1810 British colony ( Mauritius ).
1814 British possession confirmed by the Treaty of Paris.
1968 Independence from U.K. , Mauritius.
1992 Republic of Mauritius

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Unknown 1810 1869 1906

1923 1968 Now



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