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Guatemala ( Republic of Guatemala )
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1523 Spanish possession part of New Spain to 1524.
1543 Part of Captaincy of Gracias to 1560.
1560 Kingdom of Guatemala a Captaincy-general, remains subordinate to New Spain.
1570 Audiencia of Guatemala
1821 Independence of the colonial Kingdom of Guatemala.
1822 Incorporation into Mexico.
1823 Independence restored.
1823 State of Guatemala, United Provinces of the Center of America, also styled Republic of the Center of America.

1825 Part of Federal Republic of Central America to 1839.
1847 Republic of Guatemala

1921 State of Guatemala during a later aborted attempt at recreating a Central American Federation to 1922.

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Unknown 1821 1823 1823

1823 1824 1825 1838

1843 1851 1858 1871 Now


Belize ( Belize )
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1524 Part of the Spanish colony of New Spain.
1665 First English settlement.
1742 Subordinated to Jamaica to 1884.
1749 Black River Settlements.
1787 Spanish take Black River, settlers relocate further into Belize.
1862 British Honduras, crown colony.
1954 Autonomy
1964 Self-government achieved.
1973 Renamed Belize.
1981 Independence from Britain, Belize.

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Unknown 1907 1919 1950

1981 Now


El Salvador ( Republic of El Salvador )
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1524 Spanish possession, part of Guatemala, subordinate to New Spain ( Mexico ).
1539 Divided into two districts - San Salvador and Sonsonate.
1785 Intendecia of San Salvador, part of Guatemala.
1821 Independence declared, Province of San Salvador, constituent of the Kingdom of Guatemala which declared its independence.
1822 The province repudiates the decision to incorporate the Kingdom of Guatemala into Mexico, and declares its secession.
1822 Government requests annexation to United States.
1823 Incorporation into Mexico.
1823 Central America ( the former Kingdom of Guatemala ) proclaims its independence from Spain and Mexico;

         Province of San Salvador is part of the newly established republic.
1824 Constituent state of the Central American Republic, State of Salvador.
1840 Federal authorities cease to exist.
1841 Secession formally decreed, El Salvador.
1851 Part of Central American Federation ( El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua ) to 1852.
1859 Republic of El Salvador
1921 State of El Salvador during a later aborted attempt at recreating a Central American Federation to 1922.

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1524 1580 1700 1761

1785 1823 1823 1823

1838 1865 1865 1869

1873 1877 1912 1912

1912 Now


Honduras ( Republic of Honduras )

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1502 Claimed for Spain.
1524 Settlement begun.
1544 Part of Guatemala, subordinate to New Spain ( Mexico ).
1786 Intendecia of Comayagua
1791 Tegucigalpa consolidated with the government of Comayagua to create the province of Honduras.
1812 Intendencia suppressed, becomes a province.
1821 Independence of provinces of Comayagua and Tegucigalpa.
1821 Comayagua incorporated into Mexico.
1822 Tegucigalpa incorporated into Mexico.
1823 Comayagua and Comayagua and independent again.
1824 State of Honduras
1824 Constituent state of the Central American Federation to 1838.
1865 Republic of Honduras
1903 U.S. occupation of Puerto Cortez.
1907 U.S. occupation.
1921 State of Honduras during a later aborted attempt at recreating a Central American Federation to 1922.
1911 U.S. protectorate.
1919 U.S. occupation.
1924 U.S. occupation to 1925.

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1502 1516 1580 1700 1761

1785 1821 1823 1838

1866 1895 1949 Now


Nicaragua ( Republic of Nicaragua )

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1522 Spanish possession, part of Guatemala, subordinated to New Spain ( Mexico ).
1661 British Protectorate over the Mosquito Coast to 1861.
1776 Intendencia of León; confirmed 1786.
1821 Declaration of independence from Spain of the Kingdom of Guatemala.
1821 León, while awaiting developments with regard to Spain, proclaims its secession from the Kingdom of Guatemala.
1821 Granada reaffirms its being part of the Kingdom of Guatemala.
1821 Incorporated into Mexico,  de jure situation ambiguous.
1823 Part of Central American Federation.
1838 Separation from the Federation sanctioned.
1854 Republic of Nicaragua.
1854 Rival Nicaraguan governments to 1857.
1867 U.S. occupation of Managua and Leon.
1894 U.S. occupation of Bluefields.
1896 U.S. occupation of Corinto.
1898 U.S. occupation of San Juan del Sur.
1899 U.S. occupation of San Juan del Norte and Bluefields.
1909 U.S. protectorate to 1933.
1910 U.S. occupation.
1912 U.S. occupation to 1925.
1926 U.S. occupation to 1933.

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Unknown 1821 1823 1823 1838

1854 1869 1873 1889 1893

1896 1898 1899 1908 Now


Costa Rica ( Republic of Costa Rica )
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1509 Claimed by Spain.
1568 Province of Nuevo Cartago ( later Costa Rica ), part of the colonial kingdom of Guatemala, subordinate to New Spain ( Mexico ).
1821 Independence, Province of Costa Rica.
1824 Constituent state of Central American Federation to 1838.
1824 Free State of Costa Rica
1847 State of Costa Rica
1848 Republic of Costa Rica

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Unknown 1821 1823 1824 1824

1824 1838 1840 1842 1848

1906 1964 Now


Panama ( Republic of Panama )

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1501 Claimed by Spain.
1513 Province of Castilla de Oro, part of Spanish colony of Peru.
1538 Audiencia of Panama to 1542.
1567 Audiencia of Panama to 1718.
1722 Audiencia of Panama to 1751.
1739 Panama subjected to Viceroyalty of New Granada.
1812 Remains loyal to Spain during Colombian independence revolt to 1816.
1821 Independence from Spain, part of New Granada.
1840 State of Panama, secession from Colombia.
1841 State of the Isthmus
1841 Reincorporation into Colombia.
1855 Provinces of New Granada ( including Panama ) organized as sovereign states, but remaining part of New Granada to 1886.
1903 Independence from Colombia, Republic of Panama.
1903 U.S. occupation to 1914.
1903 U.S. protectorate to 1939.
1989 U.S. occupation to 1990.

@ Unknown 1821 1855 1861 1861

1886 1903 1903 Now



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