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Cuba

Jamaica

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Haiti

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Dominica

Saint Lucia

Barbados

Saint Vincent & the Grenadines

Grenada

Trinidad & Tobago

Colombia

Venezuela

Guyana

Suriname

Ecuador

Peru

Brazil
Bolivia
Chile
Paraguay
Uruguay
Argentina

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Colombia ( Republic of Colombia )
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1509 Spanish colonize the area of Nueva Granada ( modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela ) to 1520.
1564 Audiencia of Santa Fé de Bogota founded, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
1717 Viceroyalty of Santa Fé del Nuevo Reino de Granada separated from Peru ( effective 1718 ).
1724 Reincorporated into Peru to 1739.
1739 Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, restored.
1787 Audiencia of Caracas installed.
1811 Federated Provinces of New Grenada
1812 United Provinces of New Granada
1815 Reconquest by Spain to 1816.
1819 Republic of Colombia, independence from Spain.
1831 Dissolution into New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador.
1831 State of New Granada
1843 Republic of New Granada
1858 Granadine Confederation
1861 United States of New Granada
1861 United States of Colombia
1886 Republic of Colombia
1903 Independence of Panama.

@ 1500 1516 1580 1700 1761

1785 1806 1811 1814

1815 1819 1820 1821

1822 1831 1861 1861 Now


Venezuela ( Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela )
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1528 Colonized by Spain, part of colony of Santo Domingo.
1717 Subject to the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada.
1723 Subject to Santo Domingo.
1739 Subject to Nueva Granada.
1742 Province of Venezuela subject to Nueva Granada.
1786 Audiencia of Caracas established.
1797 Province of Trinidad seized by Britain ceded to Britain 1802.
1810 Local junta, acting nominally in favor of deposed King Fernando VII dethroned by Napoleon, depose the viceroy.
1811 Independence (United States of Venezuela, also styled Venezuelan Confederation, or United Provinces of Venezuela, or, from 1812,
         also American Confederation of Venezuela on the Southern Continent).
1812 Reconquest by Spain.
1813 Insurrectional government to 1814.
1816 Renewed independence, Republic of Venezuela.
1819 Incorporation into Great Colombia.
1830 Independence from Great Colombia, State of Venezuela.
1830 Republic of Venezuela
1864 United States of Venezuela
1953 Republic of Venezuela
1999 Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
2002 Republic of Venezuela
2002 Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

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1499 1516 1528 1556  1580 1700

1761 1785 1810 1811 1812

1813 1814 1817 1819 1821  

1830 1836 1859 1859 1863

 1905 1954 1999 2006 Now


Guyana ( Co-operative Republic of Guyana )
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1620 Short lived English settlement called Oyapoc.
1624 Dutch settlement of Essequibo.
1666 Dutch settlement at Berbice.
1750 Dutch settlement of Demerara subordinate to Essequibo.
1781 British occupation of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice subordinated to Barbados to 1782.
1782 French occupation to 1784.
1784 Restored to Netherlands.
1796 British occupation to 1802.
1802 Restored to Batavian Republic ( Netherlands ).
1803 British occupation to 1814.
1814 British colonies of Berbice and Demerara-Essequibo.
1815 Officially ceded to Britain by the Netherlands.
1831 Demerara-Essequibo, and Berbice united as British Guiana.
1961 Self-rule achieved.
1966 Independence from Britain, Guyana.
1970 Co-operative Republic of Guyana.

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Unknown 1781 1782 1784

1796 1802 1803 1875

1906 1954 1966 Now


Suriname ( Republic of Suriname )
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1652 English settlement at Willoughby ( modern-day Paramaribo ).
1667 Dutch colony, Dutch Guiana.
1799 British occupation to 1802.
1802 Restored to the Netherlands.
1804 British occupation to 1816.
1816 Restored to the Netherlands ( Dutch Guiana ).
1828 United with Netherlands Antilles as Dutch West Indies ( Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Dutch Guiana, Saba, and Sint Maarten ) to 1848.
1941 U.S. protectorate to 1945.
1948 Renamed Suriname.
1954 Autonomy, overseas territory.
1975 Independence, Republic of Suriname.

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Unknown 1667 1799 1802

1804 1816 1954 1975 Now


Ecuador ( Republic of Ecuador )
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1532 Spanish conquest, part of Viceroyalty of Peru.
1563 Audiencia of Quito, part of Viceroyalty of Peru.
1717 Part of Viceroyalty of New Granada.
1718 Audiencia suppressed to 1722.
1820 Independence from Spain.
1822 Part of Gran Colombia.
1830 Independence from Gran Colombia, State of the South of Colombia.
1830 State of Ecuador ( literally "State of the Equator" ).
1832 Galapagos Islands annexed.
1835 Republic of Ecuador
1942 Oriente province and port of Tumbes annexed by Peru.

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1533 1580 1700 1761

1785 1820 1822 and

1845 1845 1860 1900 Now


Peru ( Republic of Peru )
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1230 Incan empire established.
1533 Spanish conquest.
1535 Spanish colony
1542 Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru ( Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela ) .
1717 Viceroyalty New Granada ( Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela ) a separate colony.
1776 Viceroyalty Río de la Plata ( Argentina ) a separate colony.
1821 Independence, Peru ,formally recognized by Spain in 1879.
1821 State of Peru
1822 Peruvian Republic
1836 Part of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation ( Peru divided into North Peru and South Peru ) to 1839.
1838 Peruvian Republic
1881 Chilean occupation to 1883.
1883 Cedes Tarapaca, Tanca and Arica to Chile.
1980 Republic of Peru

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1532 1580 1700 1761

1785 1820 1820 1822 1823

1825 1836 1839 Now


Brazil ( Federative Republic of Brazil )
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1500 Claimed for Portugal.
1530 Portuguese colony, Brasil.
1572 Brazil divided into two governor-generalships to 1577.
1626 Portuguese colonies, Estado do Brasil, administered by the governors-general of Bahia.
1630 Dutch occupation of northeast Brazil ( Nieuw Holland ) to 1654.
1714 Viceroyalty of Brazil
1808 Portuguese royal family rule from Brazil during and after the Napoleonic wars to 1822.
1815 Kingdom of Brazil, part of the United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazil, and Algarves.
1821 Kingdom of Brazil, part of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves.
1821 Banda Oriental ( Uruguay ) annexed to 1825.
1822 Independence of Kingdom of Brazil proclaimed, recognized by Portugal in 1825.
1822 Empire of Brazil
1889 Republic of the United States of Brazil
1904 Annexation of Acre.
1967 Federative Republic of Brazil

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1500 1578 1645 1816

1821 1822 1889 1889

1960 1968 1992 Now


Bolivia ( Plurinational State of Bolivia )
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1538 Spanish colonize area called Charcas, Upper Peru, or Chuquisaca to 1545.
1548 Part of Viceroyalty of Peru.
1559 Audiencia de los Charcas created to administer Upper Peru.
1776 Part of Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata .
1809 Independent state proclaimed in Upper Peru nominally in the name of Ferdinand VII the Bourbon king of Spain deposed by Napoleon.
1810 Proclaimed a province of Río de la Plata.
1811 Annexed to Peru.
1825 Bolivian Republic, initially styled República Bolívar.
1836 Component of Peru-Bolivian Confederation ( for North and South Peru components ) to 1839.
1867 Acre granted to Bolivia in the Treaty of Ayacucho.
1868 Republic of Bolivia ( the old style lingers until 1908 ).
1883 Pacific coastline including Antofagasta annexed by Chile.
1899 Acre independent of Bolivia to 1900.
1903 Acre purchased by Brazil.

2009 Plurinational State of Bolivia

@ 1532 1580 1700 1761

1785 1811 1825 1826

1851 2004 Now


Chile ( Republic of Chile )
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1541 Spanish colony, Nueva Extremadura, part of Peru.
1778 Captiancy-general of Chile subordinate to Peru.
1810 Revolutionaries, acting nominally in favor of the Fernando VII dethroned by Napoleon, depose the viceroy.
1810 Independence declared.
1814 Spanish reconquest to 1817.
1818 Independence declared, State of Chile, independence recognizes by Spain in 1844.
1826 Republic of Chile
1932 Socialist Republic of Chile, lasted only 12 days.

1932 Republic of Chile
1883 Annexes Bolivian Pacific coast and Antofagasta as well as Tarapaca, Tanca and Arica from Peru.
1888 Annexes Easter Island.

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Unknown 1810 1816 1817 1817 Now


Paraguay ( Republic of Paraguay )
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1535 Paraguay ( Guairá ) part of Spanish colony of Peru.
1618 Province of Paraguay subordinated to Audiencia of Charcas ( Upper Peru ) to 1783; 1661-1667 subordinated to Buneos Aires.
1731 Comuneros uprising in Asunción.
1756 Guarani indian rebellion to 1757.
1776 Part of Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata.
1783 Intendecia of Paraguay, part of Río de la Plata.
1811 Independence declared, Paraguay.
1813 Republic of Paraguay
1869 Occupied by Argentina and Brazil to 1876.

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Unknown 1811 and and

1812 1826 1842 reverse

1967 reverse 1988 reverse

2013 reverse Now


Uruguay ( Oriental Republic of Uruguay )
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1680 Portuguese colony, Nova Colônia do Sacramento.
1683 Spanish occupation.
1683 Nova Colônia do Sacramento a Portuguese colony ( abandoned 1705-1715 ) to 1777.
1726 Spanish found San Filipe de Montevideo ( in 1751 raised to a province; subordinated to Río de la Palta ).
1777 Incorporated into Río de la Plata.
1807 British occupation of Montevideo.
1811 Independence rebellion to 1816.
1811 Portuguese/Brazilian occupation to 1812.
1821 Annexed to Brazil as Província Cisplatina ( Cisplatine province ).
1825 Independence from Brazil and reincorporation into United Provinces of the Río de la Plata declared (Provincia Oriental del Río de la Plata,
          also styled Province of Montevideo) .
1826 Provincial autonomy interrupted by United Provinces government to 1827.
1828 Secession from United Provinces, State of Montevideo.
1830 República Oriental del Uruguay ( before 1919 also styled Estado Oriental del Uruguay ).

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Unknown 1813 1814 1815 1815

1816 1817 1821 1822

1825 and 1828 1830 Now


Argentina ( Argentine Republic )
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1536 Spanish colonize Río de la Plata, part of Viceroyalty of Peru to 1580.
1618 Buenos Aires province created.
1661 Audiencia of Buenos Aires.
1671 Subordinated to the Audiencia of Charcas to 1776.
1776 ( Spanish ) Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata separated from Peru ( modern Argentina, Bolivia [Charcas or Upper Peru], Paraguay, and  

         Uruguay).
1806 British occupation of Buenos Aires.
1810 First autonomous government, claiming initially to rule on behalf of deposed King Fernando VII of Spain.
1813 Secession of Paraguay.
1816 Independence, United Provinces in South America.
1820 Collapse of the national government.
1821 Uruguay annexed by Brazil.
1825 Uruguay separated from Brazil and reincorporation into the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata declared.
1828 Independence of Uruguay.
1825 United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
1831 Argentine Confederation
1852 Buenos Aires in secession to 1862.
1860 Argentine Nation ( also styled Argentine Republic ).

@ 1516 1580 1700 1761

1810 1810 1811 1812 1812

1816 1818 1819 1820 1829

1853 Now



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