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* Republic of China : see Taiwan    * East Timor : see Timor-Leste   * Burma: see Myanmar

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Pakistan ( Islamic Republic of Pakistan )
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1947 Independence ( Dominion of Pakistan ); ( previously part of British India ).
1956 Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
1971 East Pakistan secedes as the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
1971 De facto independence of Bangladesh ( capitulation of Pakistan ).

@ 1774 and 1879

1906 and   1916 and

1921 and 1931 and

1945 and 1947 Now


India ( Republic of India )
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1526 Babur founds the Empire of Hind ( usually referred to by historians as the Mughal [Moghul] Empire ).
1540 The Mughal rulers are expelled and superseded by the Afghan Suri dynasty.
1555 Empire of Hind under the Mughal rulers restored.
1665 Bombay ceded to England by Portugal.
1690 Calcutta founded by England.
1765 British take over administration of Bengal ( under British East India Company rule ).
1774 Union of all East India Company settlements.
1858 The last Mughal ruler is deposed.
1858 British Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating British India.
1876 By proclamation, the Queen of Britain takes the style "Empress of India".
1947 British India, together with acceded states, is partitioned into Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan.
1947 Jammu and Kashmir accede to India.
1950 Republic of India, styled "India, that is Bharat."
1954 French India incorporated into India.
1957 The incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir is declared to be complete.
1962 China occupies Aksai Chin region of Kashmir.
1975 Annexation of Sikkim.

@ 1774 and 1879

1906 and 1916 and

1921 and 1931 and

1945 and 1947 Now


Nepal ( Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal )
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  643 Licchavi (Suryavamsa) dynasty restored; usually called Malla dynasty after reign of Jayasthitirajamalladeva.
1484 Joint rulers divide the state into three kingdoms, named after their capitals Bhaktapura, Banikapura and Kantipura.
1546 Additional division creates kingdom of Lalitapura.
16?? Banikapura annexed by Bhaktapura.
1768 The last ruler of Gorkha unifies the Kingdom of Nepal under the Shah (Saha) dynasty.
1803 Nepal invades and occupies the Indian princely states to 1815.
1792 Nominally a tributary of China to 1908.
1816 De facto British protectorate to 1923.

1959 Autonomy of principalities (rajya) in the western hills abolished.

2007 State of Nepal

2008 Monarchy is abolished, a republic declared (Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal).

@ 1847 and   1923 1962 Now

Bhutan ( Kingdom of Bhutan )
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1616 Bhutan founded.
1616 Tributary of Tibet to 1910.
1907 Kingdom of Bhutan
1910 Protectorate of Britain to 1947.
1947 Protectorate of India to 1971.

@ Unknown 1949 1969 Now

Bangladesh ( People's Republic of Bangladesh )
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1576 Bengal ( Bangala ) sultanate annexed by the Moghul Empire.
1703 Bangala nominally independent.
1765 British administration begins.
1770 Part of British India.
1947 Bengal province of British India divided; East Bengal part of Pakistan as the province of East Bengal.
1958 Autonomy abolished.
1955 Renamed East Pakistan.
1971 Independence , People's Republic of Bangladesh.
1974 Independence recognized by Pakistan.

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1774 and 1879

1906 and 1916 and  

1921 and 1931 and

1945 and 1947 1971 1972 Now


Sri Lanka ( Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka )
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1508 Ceylon a Portuguese colony.
1653 Ceylon a Dutch colony.
1795 British East India Company begins occupation of Dutch Ceylon.
1795 Subordinate to the presidency of Madras to 1798.
1796 Fully occupied by Britain ( British East India Company rule ).
1798 Separate colony.
1802 British crown colony.
1948 Independence, Ceylon.
1972 Republic of Sri Lanka
1978 Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
1983 Tamil secessionist movement in the northeast and Jaffna regions.

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1508 1653 1796 1875

1948 1951 Now


Maldives ( Republic of Maldives )
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   5th cent. Archipelago is settled by Buddhists from Ceylon ( Sri Lanka ).
1153 Sultanate
1552 Portuguese occupation to 1554.
1558 Portuguese occupation to 1573.
1658 Under Dutch "protection" from Dutch Ceylon to 1796.
1796 Under British "protection" from Ceylon.
1887 Formal British protectorate to 1965.
1953 Republic
1954 Sultanate ( restored )
1959 Secession of Addu and the and the southern atolls as United Suvadiva Republic to 1963.
1968 Republic of Maldives

@ Unknown 1903 1949 1965 Now


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