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* Republic of China : see Taiwan    * East Timor : see Timor-Leste   * Burma: see Myanmar

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Kazakhstan ( Republic of Kazakhstan )
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1917 Provisional People's Council ( Government ) of the Kazakh autonomy under Alash Orda to 1920.
1920 Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian S.F.S.R.
1925 Renamed Kazakh A.S.S.R.
1936 Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic created.
1991 Republic of Kazakhstan  ( dissolution of the U.S.S.R. ).

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1236 1456 1822 1858 1914

1917 1919 1921 1922 1937

1940 1953 1991 Now


Uzbekistan ( Republic of Uzbekistan )
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1865 Russians occupy Tashkent.
1921 Turkestan A.S.S.R. within Russian S.F.S.R. becomes Turkestan S.S.R.
1924 Turkestan A.S.S.R dissolved.
1924 Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic inaugurated.
1925 Accession to the Soviet Union.
1936 Kara-Kalpak A.S.S.R joined to Uzbek S.S.R.
1991 Republic of Uzbekistan  ( U.S.S.R. dissolved ).

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Unknown 1920 1921 1923 1923

1924 1925 1926 1934

1935 1937 1941 1952

1991 Now


Turkmenistan ( Turkmenistan )
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1865 Gradually annexed by Russia to 1885.
1918 Provisional Executive Committee of the Transcaspian Region created in Ashkhabad.
1919 Transcaspian Region terminated by British forces.
1922 Part of Turkistan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (see Uzbekistan).
1924 Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed.
1925 Accession to the Soviet Union.
1991 Independence as Republic of Turkmenistan ( dissolution of the U.S.S.R. ).

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1865 1914 1917 1919 1921

1922 1930 1937 1940

1953 1992 1997 2001 Now


Kyrgyzstan ( Kyrgyz Republic )
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1626 Part of the Dörben Oyriad.
1756 Annexed by China.
1876 Annexed by Russia.
1924 Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous oblast formed as part of the Russian S.F.S.R.
1925 Renamed Kirghiz Autonomous oblast; within the Russian S.F.S.R.
1926 Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, formed within the Russian S.F.S.R.
1936 Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
1990 Republic of Kyrgyzstan
1991 Independence declared ( dissolution of the U.S.S.R. ).
1993 Kyrgyz Republic

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1236 1456 1822 1858 1914

1917 1919 1921 1922

1937 1940 1952 1992 Now


Tajikistan ( Republic of Tajikistan )
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1626 Under Dzungarian Kalmuck's.
1758 Part of China.
1798 Part of Kokand.
1868 Annexed by Russia.
1925 Tadzikh Autonomous Republic inside Uzbek S.S.R.
1929 Tadzikh Soviet Socialist Republic within U.S.S.R.
1991 Independence as Republic of Tajikistan ( U.S.S.R dissolved ).

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1868 1914 1917 1918 1918

1920 1921 1925 1926

1929 1929 1931 1935

1937 1938 1940 1953

1991 1992 Now 


Afghanistan ( Islamic Republic of Afghanistan )
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1504 Divided between the Moghul Empire ( Kabul ) and Persia ( Herat ) with Kandahar alternating between the two nations.
1722 Afghans under Mir Mahmud occupy Isfahan in Persia to 1725.
1736 Persia under Nadir Shah reasserts control over Qandahar and southwestern Afghanistan.
1747 Independence ( Emirate [or Empire] of Afghanistan ) under Kabu.
1839 British protectorate declared. to 1842.
1879 - 8 Aug 1919 British protectorate to 1919.
1881 State of Afghanistan
1919 Independence proclaimed.
1926 Kingdom of Afghanistan
1973 Republic of Afghanistan
1978 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1979 Occupied by the Soviet Union to 1989.
1987 Republic of Afghanistan
1992 Islamic State of Afghanistan
1997 Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan ( not internationally recognized ).
2001 Islamic State of Afghanistan
2002 Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
2004 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

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1901 1919 1928 1928 1928

1929 1929 1930 1973 1974

1978 1978 1980 1987

1989 1992 1992 1992

1996 2002 and 2004 Now 


Iran ( Islamic Republic of Iran )
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  728 BC Kingdom of the Medes.
  550 BC Persian Empire ( Achaemenid dynasty ).
  330 BC Part of Macedonian ( Greek ) Empire to 312.
  312 BC Seleucid Empire
  246 BC Parthian Empire
  227 AD Sassainid Empire
  649 Arab rule to 867.
  902 Fragmentation into many states to 1118.
1118 Part of Seljuk-Turk Sultanate.
1194 Fragmentation into many states to 1221, Khwarazam dominant power.
1221 Mongol domination of local vassal states.
1295 ( Mongol ) Il-Khan Empire.
1379 Timurid Empire.
1501 Kingdom or Empire of Persia.
1722 Afghan occupation and rule to 1729.
1725 Luristan and Persian Azerbaijan regions occupied by the Ottoman Empire to 1729.
1907 Russia and Britain partition Persia into spheres of influence to 1917.
1914 Occupied by Britain and Russia to 1918.
1919 De facto British protectorate to 1921.
1935 English name "Persia" officially changed to Iran.
1941 Occupied by Britain and Soviet Union to 1946.
1945 Secession of Azerbaijan to 1946.
1946 Secession of Kurdistan to 1946.
1979 Islamic Republic of Iran

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1668 1747 Unknown 1906

1964 1979 1980 Now


Azerbaijan ( Azerbaijan Republic )
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1516 Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1618 Part of Persia.
172? Baku Khanate, under Persian rule ro 1806.
1721 Russian occupation to 1732.
1806 Annexed to Russia.
1844 Part of the Viceroyalty of the Caucasus ( Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia ) to 1917.
1918 Part ( with Armenia and Georgia ) of the Democratic Federative Republic of Transcaucasia.
1918 Azerbaijan People's Republic
1918 Baku occupied by British forces.
1918 Baku occupied by Ottoman Empire.
1920 Soviet Russia occupies Baku.
1920 Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
1922 Part( with Armenia and Georgia ) of the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of Transcaucasia.
1922 Part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
1922 T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union.
1936 T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. becomes a full union republic.
1990 Azerbaijani Republic
1991 Independence declared (dissolution of U.S.S.R.).
1992 Nagorno-Karabakh declares independence from Azerbaijan ( recognized only by Armenia ).

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1806 1858 1914 1917 1918

1918 1920 1922 1930

1936 1940 1952 1991 Now


Georgia ( Georgia )
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1491 Kingdom of Georgia divided into three Kingdoms.
1505 Under Persian suzerainty.
1516 Under Ottoman suzerainty.
1620 Under Ottoman suzerainty to 1683.
1727 Annexed by Ottoman Empire to 1735.
1736 Annexed by Persia to 1744.
1762 Kingdoms of K`art`li and Kakhet`i in personal union, often officially styled Kingdom of Georgia.
1801 Kingdom bequeathed to the Russian emperor.
1802 Incorporation into Russian Empire; "Georgian Tsar" added to imperial style.
1844 Part of the Viceroyalty of of the Caucasus ( Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia ).
1881 Part of the Government-general of the Caucasus to 1905.
1905 Viceroyalty of the Caucasus ( restored ).
1917 Transcaucasian Federation created ( Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia ).
1918 Part of Democratic Federative Republic of of Transcaucasia.
1918 Brief German protectorate.
1918 Georgian Democratic Republic.
1920 Independece recognized by Soviet Russia.
1921 Georgian Socialist Soviet Republic.
1922 Part of the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of Transcaucasia.
1922 Part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
1922 T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union.
1936 T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Georgian S.S.R. becomes a full union republic.
1990 Republic of Georgia
1991 Independence declared. (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)
1991 South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia ( not internationally recognized ).
1992 Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia ( not internationally recognized ).
1995 Georgia

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500 1000 1200 1300

1400 1500 1802 1858

1914 1917 1918 1918

1921 1922 1922 1926

1930 1937 1940 1951

1990 2004 Now


Armenia ( Republic of Armenia )
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2107 BC Armenia (Hayastan) under the legendary Hayk dynasty to 374 BC.
  331 BC Part of Persia.
  401 BC Independent under the Erowandeank dynasty to 200 BC.
  200 BC Part Seleucid Kingdom to 189 BC.
  188 BC Division into "Armenia Major" and "Armenia Minor."
    87 BC Armenian state reunified.
    41 AD Roman occupation to 47 AD.
  114 Roman occupation to 117.
  238 Roman occupation to 244.
  252 Occupied by Parthian ( Persian ) Empire to 256.
  294 Occupied by Parthian Empire to 298.
  261 Palmyrene occupation to 272.
  428 Incorporated into Parthian Empire.
  635 Part of Byzantine Empire to 697.
  635 Rulers from various families with style "Armenian Prince of Princes" to 885.
  697 Under the Islamic Caliphate.
  700 Byzantine occupation to 711.
  711 Under the Islamic Caliphate to 885.
  885 Independence under the Bagrationi dynasty ( Kingdom of Armenia ).
1045 Part of the Byzantine Empire.
1064 Under the Sultanate of the Rum Seljuq Turks to 1242.
1080 Armenian state ( Principality or Duchy from 1198, Kingdom ) founded in Cilicia region.
1242 Mongol occupation to 1295.
1295 Part of Persia.
1375 Kingdom of Lesser Armenia falls to the Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt, from 1517 part of Ottoman Empire.
1514 Western Armenia part of the Ottoman Empire.
1639 Final division between Persia ( eastern ) and Ottoman Empire ( western Armenia ).
1722 Principality of Kapan ( Ghapan ), uniting the meliks of Siunik into one state.
1734 Semi-independent dynastic derebeys or "valley lords" established southern Ottoman Armenia.
1828 Eastern Armenia (Yerevan) ceded to Russia by Persia.
1828 Autonomous Armenian ( Yerevan ) District formed.
1844 Part of the Viceroyalty of the Caucasus ( Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia ) to 1917.
1845 Russian province Erivan ( modern Armenia ) created.
1915 Russian occupation of Ottoman ( western ) Armenia to 1917.
1917 Separate administration for Ottoman Armenia occupied by Russia established.
1918 Part ( with Azerbaijan and Georgia ) of Democratic Federative Republic of Transcaucasia.
1918 Republic of Armenia to 1920.
1918 Ottoman occupation.
1919 Former Russian ( eastern ) and Ottoman ( western ) proclaimed united.
1920 Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
1920 Former Ottoman portion of Armenia re-incorporated into Turkey.
1922 Part ( with Azerbaijan and Georgia ) of the Federative Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of Transcaucasia with in U.S.S.R.
1922 Part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
1922 T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union.
1936 T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Armenian S.S.R. becomes a full union republic.
1990 Republic of Armenia ( including Nagorno-Karabakh ).
1991 Independence declared. (dissolution of U.S.S.R.)
1992 Nagorno-Karabakh declares independence from Azerbaijan.

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1828 1858 1914 1917 1918

1918 1920 1922 1930

1936 1940 1952 1990 Now



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