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* Yugoslavia : see Serbia   * Cyprus & Turkey : see East Asia

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Norway ( Kingdom of Norway )
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  872 Kingdom of Norway
1000 Danish rule to 1016.
1030 Danish rule to 1035.
1319 In ( nominally personal ) union with Sweden to 1343.
1380 In ( nominally personal ) union with Denmark.
1536 Danish province.
1814 End of union with Denmark.
1814 Personal union with Sweden to 1905.
1905 End of personal union with Sweden.
1940 German occupation to 1945 ( kingship abolished by the Storting, the name of the state then being simply Norway ).
1945 Kingdom of Norway, restored.
1945 Allied occupation ( Soviet occupation of Finnmark 1944 - 1945 ).

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1387 1814 1821 and

1884 and 1905 Now


Sweden ( Kingdom of Sweden )
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  995 Kingdom of the Swedes, Goths and Wends.
1180 Beginning of the conquest of Finland.
1278 Definitive unification of "Svear" and Götar".
1319 Norway in ( nominally personal ) union with Sweden to 1343.
1388 Kingdom of Sweden
1396 Union of Kalmar: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in personal union to 1523.

1658 Skåne ( Scania ), Halland, and Bohuslän provinces ceded to Sweden by Denmark.
1581 Grand Duchy of Finland ( subject to, and from 1772 in nominal personal union with Sweden ) to 1809.
1730 Personal union with Hesse-Kassel to 1751.
1809 Finland ceded to Russia.
1814 Personal union with Norway to 1905.
1905 Norway independent.

@  1523 1815 1844 1905 Now

Finland ( Republic of Finland )
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1155 Conquest of Finland by Sweden begins.
1284 Duchy of Finland
1323 Peace of Nöteburg ( Pähkinäsaari ) between Sweden and Russia. Finland's eastern border is defined for the first time.
1581 Grand Duchy of Finland ( subject to, and from 1772 in nominal personal union with, Sweden ).
1714 Russian occupation to 1721.
1742 Russian occupation to 1743.
1772 Beginning of nominal personal union with Sweden.
1808 Russian occupation.
1809 Personal union with Russia .
1809 Transfer from Sweden to Russia ratified in peace treaty.
1917 Formal declaration of independence from Russia.
1918 Independence recognized by Russia.
1918 A Finnish Socialist Conciliar ( "Soviet" ) Republic in southern Finland during the civil war.
1918 Kingdom of Finland
1918 Germans military intervention in southern Finland.
1919 Republic of Finland
1921 Sovereignty over Åland Islands awarded to Finland.
1939 Finnish Democratic Republic, at the Soviet occupied town of Terijoki to 1940.
1944 Formerly allied German forces occupy Lapland to 1945.
1944 Allied ( Soviet ) occupation to 1947.

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Unknown 1809 1858 1914

1917 1918 1918 1920 1978 Now


Denmark ( Kingdom of Denmark )
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  899 Kingdom of Denmark ( Jutland, the Islands and Skåne [Scania] now southern Sweden ).
1000 Danish rule over Norway to 1016.
1016 Denmark in personal union with England to 1042.
1030 Danish rule over Norway to 1035.
1375 Norway in ( nominally personal ) union with Denmark.
1396 Union of Kalmar: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in personal union to 1523.
1658 Skåne ceded to Sweden.
1814 End of ( nominally personal ) union with Norway ( ceded to Sweden ).
1864 Prussian occupation of Jutland.
1918 Kingdom of Iceland independent in personal union with Denmark.
1940 German occupation ( German protectorate ) to 1945.
1943 Germans take over direct administration.
1944 End of personal union with Iceland.
1945 Allied occupation to 1946.

@  1219 Now

Iceland ( Republic of Iceland )
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  874 Settlement begun by expelled nobles from Norway.
  930 Commonwealth ( republic )
1261 Union with Norway.
1380 Danish rule.
1720 The Faeroe Islands and Greenland administered as part of Iceland to 1776.
1809 Independence proclaimed by Danish adventurer, Republic of Iceland ( Recognized by Danish 1814 ).
1904 Autonomy granted.
1918 Kingdom of Iceland independent ( in personal union with Denmark ).
1940 De facto end of personal union upon German occupation of Denmark.
1940 Allied occupation to 1944.
1944 Republic of Iceland ( end of the personal union ).

@ 1380 1874 1897 1915 Now

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