Home  >  World ( Africa | America | Asia | Europe | Oceania )  >  Europe ( North | West | Central | South | East )  >  West Europe

@

North Europe

West Europe

Central Europe

South Europe

East Europe

Norway
Sweden
Finland
Denmark
Iceland

The Netherlands
Belgium
Luxembourg
France
Andorra
Monaco
United Kingdom
Ireland

Germany
Switzerland
Liechtenstein
Austria
Czech Republic
Slovakia
Hungary

Slovenia
Croatia
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Serbia

Montenegro

Macedonia

Kosovo
Albania
Greece
Italy
San Marino
Vatican City
Spain
Portugal
Malta

Russia
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Belarus
Ukraine
Moldova
Poland
Romania
Bulgaria

* Yugoslavia : see Serbia   * Cyprus & Turkey : see East Asia

@

@


The Netherlands ( Kingdom of the Netherlands )
@

1018 County of Holland.
1425 Burgundian rule.
1482 Under Habsburg rule ( Austrian to 1556; then to Spanish branch ).
1556 Part of the Spanish Netherlands.
1579 Independence declared.
1581 United Netherlands, from 1648 in regular non-official use Republic of the United Netherlands or Republic of the United Provinces.
1648 Independence recognized by Spain.
1688 In personal union with Britain to 1694.
1795 Occupied by France to 1813.
1795 Batavian Republic ( in informal official use from 1795; from 1801 also Batavian Commonwealth ).
1805 Batavian Commonwealth
1806 Kingdom of Holland
1810 Annexed to France.
1813 United Netherlands
1815 Kingdom of The Netherlands ( includes Belgium, Limburg, and Luxembourg ).
1839 Duchy of Limburg a separate polity in personal union with Netherlands to 1867.
1940 Occupied by Germany ( Reichskomissariat Niederlanden ) to 1945.

@

1572 1596 1795 1806 1810

1813 Now


Belgium ( Kingdom of Belgium )
@

1139 Duchy of Lower Lotharingia ( Lorraine ).
1458 County of Flanders.
1467 Personal union of Flanders and principalities of Lotharingia under the Valois dukes of Burgundy.
1548 Under the Habsburg dynasty.
1556 Spanish Netherlands, under the kings of the Spanish monarchy.
1703 French occupation to 1706.
1703 Limburg under Austrian rule.
1706 Brabant and Flanders under allied administration, Hainaut and Narmur under Bavarian administration.
1713 Spanish Netherlands passes to the Archdukes of Austria ( Austrian  Netherlands ).
1745 Occupied by France to 1748.
1790 United Belgian ( Netherlands ) States ( United States of Belgium or United Belgian States ); Luxembourg remains under Austrian rule.
1790 Austrian rule restored.
1792 Occupied by France to 1793.
1794 Occupied by France.
1795 Belgian departments annexed by France.
1797 Officially ceded to France by Austria.
1814 Belgian territory separated from France, Government general of Belgium.
1830 The Provional Government of Belgium proclaims independence from the Netherlands ( Belgium ).
1831 Kingdom of Belgium
1914 Occupied by Germany to 1918.
1940 Germany occupies Belgium and administers it together with Nord and Pas de Calais departments of France to 1944.
1944 Allied occupation to 1944.

@ 1713 1781 1786 1789 1789

1790 1792 variant 1794 1814

1815 1830 1831 Now


Luxembourg ( Grand Duchy of Luxembourg )
@

  950 Sigefroi de Arras given Echternach as a fiefdom by Emperor Otto I.
  963 Area of the modern capital acquired from the abbots of St. Maxim.
1083 Title of Count of Luxembourg adopted ( Graf von Lützelburg ).
1354 Duchy of Luxembourg
1388 The duchy is pledged by Wenceslas II to Josse ( Jobst )  to 1457.
1457 Upon the death of hereditary duke Ladislas Postumus of Austria, the ducal lines are reunited in the Burgundy branch

         of the house of Valois and its heirs the kings of the Spanish kingdom.
1543 French occupation to 1545.
1684 French occupation to 1697.
1703 French occupation to 1714.
1713 Luxembourg becomes part of the Austrian Netherlands.
1792 Annexation by France to 1793.
1795 Annexation by France to 1814.
1814 Under Gouvernement-général de la Belgique.
1814 Under Gouvernement-général du Rhin Moyen to 1815.
1815 Style of duke restored for Willem I of the Netherlands.
1815 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1831 Upon separation of Belgium from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the already

         diminished territory of Luxembourg is divided into the Belgian province of Luxembourg and the surviving Grand Duchy.
1839 Division acquiesced to by the King/Grand-duke.
1890 End of the personal union with the Netherlands.
1914 Occupied by Germany to 1918.
1940 Occupied by Germany to 1944.
1944 Allied occupation to 1945.

@ 1713 1792 1793 1795 1815

1845 Now


France ( French Republic )
@

  417 Kingdom of the Franks
  843 Kingdom of the West Franks
  987 Kingdom of France
1419 Paris occupied by England and Burgundians to 1436.
1422 Kingdom of France in personal union with England to 1453.
1558 Calais, the last English possession in France, is taken by the French.
1792 French Republic ( First Republic ).
1809 French Empire ( First Empire ).
1814 Kingdom of France ( restored ) to 1818.
1815 French Empire ( restored ).
1815 Occupied by the Allied powers.
1815 Kingdom of France ( restored ).
1848 French Republic ( Second Republic ).
1852 French Empire ( Second Empire ).
1870 Northern France occupied by Prussia/Germany to 1873.
1871 French Republic ( Third Republic ) .
1918 German occupation of parts of northeastern France.
1940 France under German occupation to 1944; Italian occupation zone in southern France 1942, but from 1943 is also occupied Germany.
1944 French Republic ( Third Republic restored ).
1947 French Republic ( Fourth Republic )
1959 French Republic ( Fifth Republic )

@

1180 1364 1638 1790

1792 variant 1794 1814

1815 1815 1830 1848 1848

1870 and 1871 1940 1944 Now


Andorra ( Principality of Andorra )
@

  803 Part of the Kingdom of the Franks.
  988 Territory donated to the Bishop of Urgel as a feudal domain by the Frankish king.
1278 Principality of Andorra independent, sovereignty shared between the Count of Foix and the Bishop of Urgel.
1589 The County of Foix and Kingdom of Navarre become part of the French crown lands;

         the title of Andorran Coprince held by the head of state of France from this period.
1793 France renounces position of Coprince to 1806.
1812 Annexed by France to 1813.
1814 Independence confirmed by Treaty of Paris.
1940 French Viguier loyal to Vichy France to 1944.
1993 Principality of Andorra

@

1806 1866 and 1931 and

1939 Now


Monaco ( Principality of Monaco )
@

  975 Part of Provence.
1191 Monaco granted to Republic of Genoa by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.
1297 Lordship of Monaco, under Grimaldi dynasty.
1301 Occupied by Genoa to 1341.
1346 Menton acquired ( Rocquebrune acquired 1355 ).
1357 Genoese rule to 1397.
1402 Genoese rule to 1419.
1436 Briefly occupied by Milan to 1436.
1448 Protectorate of the Duchy of Savoy to 1489.
1512 France recognizes independence of Monaco.
1524 Protectorate of Spain.
1641 Principality of Monaco ( sovereign 1688 ); protectorate of France.
1793 National Convention elected which declares the Grimaldi dynasty deposed.
1793 Annexed to France to 1814; part of département Alpes-Maritimes.
1793 Monaco renamed Fort-Hercule.
1814 Allied occupation to 1814.
1814 Principality of Monaco restored ( under French protectorate ).
1815 Protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
1860 Protectorate of France ( confirmed 1918 ).
1942 Occupied by Italy to 1943.
1943 Occupied by Germany to 1944.

@ Unknown 1793 1814 1881 Now

United Kingdom ( United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland )
@

  927 Kingdom of England
1013 Danish rule to 1014.
1016 Danish rule to 1042.
1066 Norman conquest.
1171 English rule in Ireland begins.
1291 Direct over Scotland to 1292.
1296 Direct over Scotland to 1307.
1413 Personal union with France to 1453.
1541 Ireland in personal union with England.
1603 Personal union with the Kingdom of Scotland.
1649 Commonwealth of England and Ireland, Dominion of Wales, islands of Guernsey and Jersey.
1649 Monarchy abolished.
1653 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
1660 Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland ( restored ).
1689 Personal union with The Netherlands to 1702.
1707 United Kingdom of Great Britain
1714 Personal union with Hanover to 1837.
1801 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1922 Independence of Ireland, but 6 northern counties of Ulster remain part of Britain as Northern Ireland.
1927 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

@ 1195 Unknown 1470 Unknown 1606 1649

1660 1801 Now


Ireland ( Ireland )
@

1980 BC Legendary foundation of the celtic Kingdom of Ireland.
  795 Norse domination to 1014.
1155 Pope Hadrian IV bestows most of Ireland to King Henry II of England.
1171 English conquest begins.
1177 English rule begins in Ulster.
1541 Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with England.
1801 Part of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1916 Provisional Government of the Irish Republic proclaimed in Dublin in rebellion, the "Easter Rising."
1919 Independence declared, Irish Republic.
1922 Irish Free State ( a British dominion ).
1937 Éire ( Ireland ).
1938 Britain surrenders rights in the treaty ports of Queenstown, Berehaven, and Lough Swilly.
1948 Republic of Ireland

@ Unknown 1801 1922 Now

@

> Go Top

@

@

All the flag images belong to Vexilla mundi - Drawn by Mello Luchtenberg

All the State Chronologies belong to World Statesmen  - Edited by Benjamin Cahoon 

Copyright © 2004 - 2013  World Flags @History  - Created by Evan