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* Yugoslavia : see Serbia   * Cyprus & Turkey : see East Asia

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Germany ( Federal Republic of Germany )
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  800 Holy Roman Empire ( "First" Reich ).
1806 Confederation of the Rhine founded,  under French rule.
1806 Holy Roman Empire dissolved.
1813 Confederation of the Rhine dissolves.
1815 German Confederation
1848 German Empire ( Reich ) to 1849.
1867 North German Confederation to 1871.
1871 German Empire ( "Second" Reich ).
1918 Allied occupation of the Rhineland to 1930.
1919 Germany a republic ( style German Reich not officially abandoned ) "Weimar Republic".
1934 Era of the "Third Reich" to 1945.
1938 Austria annexed to 1945.
1939 Styled Greater German Reich ( Grossdeutches Reich ) only widely used from 1942.
1945 Allied occupation to 1955.
1945 Soviet Union annexes northern East Prussia.
1949 Federal Republic of Germany ( "West Germany" to 1990 ) .
1949 Soviet backed German Democratic Republic ( "East Germany" ) formed in the east.
1990 East Germany incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany.

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962 1410 1806 ... 1816 1816 1852 ... 1867

1919 1933 1935 1945

1949 and 1990 Now


Switzerland ( Swiss Confederation )
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1291 Swiss Confederation founded.
1355 Autonomy
1499 The Holy Roman Emperor recognizes the de facto independence of the Swiss Confederation.
1649 The sovereign independence of the full members of the Swiss Confederation, no central government.
1798 French occupation to 1813.
1798 Proclamation of Helvetic Republic, One and Indivisible; abolition of cantonal sovereignty and feudal rights.
1803 Napoléon's "Mediation" re-establishes the Swiss Confederation; canton sovereignty largely restored.
1815 Swiss Confederation reorganized.
1845 Sonderbund formed by 7 Catholic Cantons to 1847.
1848 Federal constitution goes into effect.

@ 1798 1803 Now

Liechtenstein ( Principality of Liechtenstein )
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1230 County of Vaduz ( Grafschaft Vaduz ).
1276 Lordship of Schellenberg ( Herrschaft Schllenberg ).
1684 Vaduz under imperial administration to 1686.
1699 Lordship of Schellenberg purchased by the Liechtenstein dynasty.
1712 County of Vaduz purchased by the Liechtenstein dynasty.
1719 County of Vaduz and Lordship of Schellenberg united as Principality of Liechtenstein ( Fürstentum Liechtenstein ).
1806 Established independence from the Holy Roman Empire.

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Unknown and 1719 1852 1921

1937 Now


Austria ( Republic of Austria )
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  970 Ostmark, from 976 under the Babenberg dynasty.
1156 Duchy of Austria, under the Babenberg dynasty to 1246.
1282 Habsburg dynasty established, Habsburg-Lothringen dynasty from 1780.
1453 Habsburgs Dukes of Austria become Holy Roman Emperors.
1457 Archduchy of Austria.
1526 Hungary and Bohemia in personal union with Austria.
1804 Kaisertum Österreich
1806 Holy Roman Empire abolished.
1849 Divided into Upper Austria and Lower Austria.
1866 Austria a Member of the German Confederation to 1866.
1916 First official use of the style Empire of Austria.
1918 Emperor's manifesto declares that the Austrian Empire will be reorganized as a federal state.
1918 Independence of Hungary.
1918 Independence of the Czechoslovakia.
1918 End of Habsburg dynastic rule.
1918 Republic of German-Austria
1919 Independence of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Yugoslav state.
1919 Republic of Austria ( "First" Republic ).
1934 Federal State of Austria
1938 Annexed to Germany.
1945 Allied occupation to 1955.
1945 Republic of Austria ( "Second" Republic ).

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Unknown 1786 1804 1869 1918

1919 1934 1938 1945 Now


Czech Republic ( Czech Republic )
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1918 Czechoslovak State
1918 Czechoslovak Republic
1938 Semi-officially styled Czecho-Slovak Republic ( Slovakia and Ruthenia autonomous ).
1939 Separation into Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under German rule and Slovakia.
1939 Occupied by Germany to 1945.
1945 Czechoslovak Republic reconstituted.
1960 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
1990 Czechoslovak Federal Republic
1990 Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
1993 Separation into Czech Republic ( Czechia ) and Slovakia.

@ 1918 1920 1939 1945 1990

1992 Now


Slovakia ( Slovak Republic )
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  907 Part of Hungary.
1918 Union with Czechoslovakia declared.
1918 Eastern Slovak Republic declared in Hungarian zone.
1918 Czechoslovakia occupies east Slovakia.
1918 Hungarians in west Slovakia declare the ( "First" ) Slovak Soviet Republic in rebellion.
1919 Western Slovakia reoccupied by Czechs; remaining Hungarian rule in eastern Slovakia terminated.
1919 Hungarian occupation of two thirds of Slovakia.
1919 ( "Second" ) Slovak Soviet Republic.
1920 Hungary formally cedes the majority Slovak areas to Czechoslovakia.
1927 Province of Slovakia within Czechoslovakia.
1938 Autonomy within Czechoslovakia ( Slovak Republic ) .
1939 Independence, Slovak State; under German protectorate.
1939 Slovak Republic under German protectorate.
1944 German occupation to 1945.
1945 Reincorporation into Czechoslovakia declared.
1945 Soviet occupation.
1969 Slovak Socialist Republic within Czechoslovakia.
1990 Slovak Republic within Czechoslovakia.
1993 Independence as Slovak Republic.

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1848 1918 1920 1939 1945

1990 1992 Now


Hungary ( Republic of Hungary )
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  896 Magyars begin to settle in southern Pannonia.
  907 Magyar rule over entire are of modern Hungary and Slovakia.
1000 Kingdom of Hungary
1526 In personal union with the Austria to 1918.
1849 Hungary
1849 Kingdom of Hungary ( in personal union with Austria ).
1867 "Hungarian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
1918 Independence of Croatia.
1918 Independence of Slovakia.
1918 Hungarian independence proclaimed.
1918 Hungarian People's Republic
1919 Hungarian Conciliar ( "Soviet" ) Republic ( Hungarian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ) .
1919 Hungarian People's Republic
1919 Occupied by Rumania.
1919 Hungarian State
1920 Hungarian Kingdom
1944 German occupation to 1945.
1944 Occupied by Soviet Union to 1947.
1944 Hungarian State
1946 Hungarian Republic
1949 Hungarian People's Republic
1989 Hungarian Republic (Republic of Hungary)

2012 Hungary

@ 1804 1848 and 1849 1865

1867 1867 and 1915 and

1919 and 1919 1949 1956

1957 1989 Now


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