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* Yugoslavia : see Serbia   * Cyprus & Turkey : see East Asia

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Slovenia ( Republic of Slovenia )
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  861 Slovene principality under Kocelj to 874.
  952 Part of Bavaria.
  976 Part of Carinthia to 1002.
1002 Margravite of Carniola.
1077 Ruled by the Patriarchate of Aquileia ( Friuli ) to 1232.
1237 Imperial administration to 1251.
1251 Duchy of Carniola ( Herzogtum Krain ).
1259 Ruled by Aquileia ( Friuli ) to 1269.
1270 Austrian rule ( Duchy of Carniola ).
1809 Annexed by France.
1813 Austrian occupation.
1867 Part of "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy to 1918.
1918 Part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes ( later Yugoslavia ).
1929 Part of Dravska Banovina ( within Yugoslavia ).
1941 Italian-German occupation to 1941.
1941 Partitioned between Italy, Hungary, and Germany to 1945.
1945 Reincorporated into Yugoslavia.
1945 Part of Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia ( People's Republic of Slovenia ).
1963 Socialist Republic of Slovenia
1990 Republic of Slovenia
1991 Independence declared.

@ 1809 1813 1869 1918 1929...1945

1946 1947 1990 Now


Croatia ( Republic of Croatia )
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  879 Principality of Croatia.
  925 Kingdom of Croatia
1102 Personal union with Kingdom of Hungary.
1527 Hungary and Croatia in personal union with Austria.
1809 Annexed by France.
1813 Austrian occupation.
1822 Transferred to Hungary.
1848 Autonomous part of Hungary.
1867 Part of the "Hungarian half" of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
1918 Independence from Hungary, as State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs.
1918 Merged into Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
1920 Hungary formally renounces claim to Croatia and Slavonia.
1929 Partitioned into Sava the Banovina and Costal Banovina to 1939.
1939 Autonomy (Banovina of Croatia).
1941 Independent State of Croatia ( under Italo-German control ), Nominally a kingdom to 1943.
1943 Germany occupies former Italian controlled areas.
1943 Re-incorporation into Yugoslavia declared.
1944 Federal State of Croatia, reincorporation into Yugoslavia declared.
1945 Part of Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia ( People's Republic of Croatia ).
1963 Socialist Republic of Croatia within Yugoslavia
1990 Republic of Croatia
1991 Independence declared.
1991 Serbian Krajna independent ( not recognized ) to 1995.

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1830 1848 1852 and

1867 1871 1871 1918

1929 1939 1941 1945

1947 1990 1990 Now


Bosnia & Herzegovina ( Bosnia and Hercegovina )
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1083 Occupied by Duklja.
1137 Part of Hungary.
1154 Semi-autonomous, ruled by Bans ( dukes ).
1163 Occupied by Hungray to 1166.
1166 Occupied by Byzantine Empire to 1180.
1377 Kingdom of Bosnia proclaimed.
1463 Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1688 Austrian occupation to 1689.
1718 Austrian occupation of northeastern Bosnia to 1739.
1878 Administered by Austria-Hungary ( nominally under Ottoman sovereignty ).
1908 Annexed by Austria-Hungary ( crownland of Bosnia and province of Herzegowina ).
1918 Part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes ( later Yugoslavia ).
1941 Part of independent Croatia to 1945.
1943 Declared part of Yugoslavia.
1945 Part of Yugoslavia ( People's Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina ).
1963 Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina ( within Yugoslavia ).
1990 Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina
1991 Serbs declare separate state  (not recognized ) ( Republika Srpska ).
1992 Independence declared.
1993 Bosnian Croats proclaim independence as Herceg-Bosna ( not recognized ) to 1994.
1993 Nominally independent state of Western Bosnia declared ( not recognized ) to 1994.
1994 Formation of the Croat-Muslim Federation.
1996 Bosnia and Hercegovina ( under United Nations and NATO protection ).

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Unknown 1878 1878 1879

1908 1918 1941 1945 1946

1992 1998 Now


Serbia ( Republic of Serbia )
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1918 State of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
1920 Austrian provinces of Bosnia-Hercegovina, Carniola, Dalmatia, parts of Styria, and Carinthia incorporated.
1920 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
1929 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1941 State dissolved under Italian-German occupation, from 1943, occupied only by Germany ( Croatia nominally independent ).
1941 Serbia and Banat occupied by Germany to 1944.
1943 State reconstituted ( Democratic Federative Yugoslavia ).
1945 Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia
1963 Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia
1991 Independence of Slovenia and Croatia.
1991 Independence of Macedonia.
1992 Independence of Bosnia-Hercegovina.
1992 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established ( consisting only of Serbia and Montenegro ).
1999 Kosovo under foreign occupation ( UN protection ).
2003 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro ( a loose confederation ).

2006 Republic of Serbia

@ 1835 1915..1918 1941 1946

1992 2004 2010 Now


      Yugoslavia

         1945 Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia

         1963 Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia

         1992 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

         2003 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro

         1946 1991 2006


Montenegro ( Montenegro )
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c.900 Principality of Dioclea located in present-day Montenegro.

  990 First reliable mention of the state of Zeta, encompassing the region of Brda and a small part of present-day Montenegrin coast.

1036 Byzantine occupation to 1037.

1042 Byzantine towns of Kotor (Cattaro) and Shkodra (Scutari) become part of the state of Zeta; Zeta becomes independent.

1091 Byzantine occupation to 1101.

1166 Incorporated into the Serbian Empire to 1355.

1296 Name Crna Gora (Montenegro) mentioned for the first time in a charter of St. Nicholas' Monastery.

1426 Voivodeship of Zeta

1479 Shkodra falls to the Ottomans. Ivan-beg retires in the mountains and settles his new capital in Cetinje; Zeta becomes Montenegro.

1479 Ottoman occupation to 1481.

1496 Ottoman occupation to 1498.

1496 Montenegro loses its independence.

1499 Under Ottoman suzerainty (Sanjak of Montenegro 1513 - 1528).

1499 Venetian-Ottoman war; tribal anarchy in Montenegro to 1503.

1513 Montenegro becomes a Sanjak of Ottoman Empire.

1799 Montenegro obtains from Ottoman Sultan a declaration of independence.

1807 Allied to Russians during Napoleonic wars, Petar I occupies Kotor (Cattaro).

1813 Montenegrin occupation of Kotor (Cattaro) to 1814.

1852 Principality of Montenegro

1856 By Treaty of Paris, Ottomans forced to abandon claims on Montenegro.

1878 By Treaty of San Stefano, Ottomans recognize the independence of Montenegro.

1878 Independence recognized by the Congress of Berlin; Montenegro acquires Bar (Antivari) and Podgorica.

1878 Austria-Hungary occupies the Sanjak of Novi Pazar; which however remains part of the Ottoman Empire to 1913.

1910 Kingdom of Montenegro

1913 Sanjak of Novi Pazar partitioned between Serbia and Montenegro.

1913 Montenegro occupies Shkodër in Albania.

1915 Shkodër occupied by Montenegro to 1916.

1916 Occupied by Austria-Hungary to 1918.

1917 Corfu Declaration declares Montenegro unified with Serbia.

1918 Allied occupation to 1920.

1918 Unification with Serbia proclaimed.

1918 Merged into what became Yugoslavia.

1920 By Treaty of Rapallo Allies recognizes de facto union with Serbia.

1921 Paris Ambassadors conference recognizes de jure union with Serbia.

1929 Part of the Banovina of Zeta (Zetska Banovina).

1941 Occupied by Italy to 1943.

1941 Independence of the Montenegrin state as a constitutional monarchy declared (under Italian protectorate).

1943 Occupied by Germany to 1944.

1943 Re-incorporation into Yugoslavia declared.

1945 Part of Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia (People's Republic of Montenegro).

1963 Part of Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (Socialist Republic of Montenegro).

1991 Part of State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Republic of Montenegro)

2006 Republic of Montenegro

2007 Montenegro

@ 1878   1880 1880 1881

1910 1916 ... 1918 1941 1946

1993 2004 Now


Macedonia ( Republic of Macedonia )
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1185 Part of Bulgaria.
1371 Part of Ottoman Empire.
1394 Part of the Ottoman province of Rumelia.
1689 Austrian occupation.
1877 Part of Kosovo province to 1911.
1903 Allied occupation.
1913 Macedonia ( Skopje area ) to Kingdom of Serbia; Macedonia ( Salonika ) incorporated into Greece.
1915 Bulgarian occupation to 1918.
1918 Part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes ( later Yugoslavia ).
1941 Vardar Macedonia annexed by Bulgaria to 1944.
1941 Part of western Macedonia ( Debar and Struga ) annexed to Albania o 1944.
1943 German forces occupy Italian areas to 1944.
1945 People's Republic of Macedonia
1945 Part of Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia ( People's Republic of Macedonia ).
1963 Socialist Republic of Macedonia within Yugoslavia.
1991 Republic of Macedonia, Independence declared.
1993 Recognized by UN as Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

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Unknown 1689 1689 1877 1878

1903 1903 1913 and and

1918 1941 and 1943 and

1943 and 1944 ... 1946 1991

1995 Now


Kosovo ( Republic of kosovo )
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c.1092 Part of Serbia.

1389 Part of Ottoman Empire (part of vilayet of Skopje).

1868 Separate vilayet (province) of Prizren created.

1877 Separate vilayet of Kosovo created.

1912 Part of independent Albania to 1913.

1913 Incorporated into Serbia (then from 1918 Yugoslavia).

1929 Part of Banovina of Vardar.

1941 Occupied by Italy.

1941 Annexed to Albania to 1944.

1943 Occupied by Germany to 1944.

1944 Re-incorporated into Yugoslavia.

1945 Autonomous Kosovo-Metohija District.

1963 Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

1969 Administrative autonomy.

1974 Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo.

1989 Serbian government revokes autonomy.

1990 Kosovo declares separation from Serbia, but not Yugoslavia (not recognized).

1990 Autonomous Province of Kosovo-Metohija.

1991 Kosovo declares its independence from Yugoslavia (Republic of Kosova), not recognized.

1999 Kosovo under foreign occupation and United Nations administration.

2008 Indepenence declared (Republic of Kosovo), not recognized by Serbia and Russia. 

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Unknown 1912 ... 1913 1918 1941 ... 1945

1992 1999 2008 Now


Albania ( Republic of Albania )
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1204 Part of the Despotate of Epirus ( under Byzantine, then Serbian, and later Bulgarian influence ).
1259 Durrës ( Durazzo ) independent to 1268.
1356 Albanian Principality
1384 Ottoman conquest of Albanian tribes and principalities begins.
1444 Gjergj Skanderbeg leads an Albanian state in central Albania to 1468.
1466 Vlorë (Valona) part of the Ottoman Empire.
1506 Ottoman conquest completed.
1912 Independence declared, recognized by the great powers to 1913.
1914 Under an International Commission, Albanian Principality.
1920 Italy a recognizes full independence of Albania.
1921 Proclamation of an independent Mirditë republic in the north.
1921 The Great Powers confirmed the independence of Albania.
1925 Albanian Republic
1928 Albanian Kingdom
1939 Invaded by Italy.
1939 Personal union with Italy ( de facto annexation ) to 1943.
1940 Greek occupation of northern Epirus to 1941.
1941 Kosovo and Metohia, part of western Macedonia.
1943 German occupation to 1944.
1946 People's Republic of Albania
1976 Socialist People's Republic of Albania
1991 Republic of Albania

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Unknown 1912 1912 1912 1913

1913 1914 1915 1915 1917

1917 1918 1920 1928 1939

1943 1943 1944 1946 1992 Now


Greece ( Hellenic Republic )

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  364 Eastern Roman Empire
  395 Final division of the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern (Byzantine) Empires.
  476 Byzantine Empire ( Emperor in the West deposed by barbarians ).
1204 Latin Empire
1261 Byzantine Empire ( restored )
1453 Constantinople captured by Turks end of the Byzantine Empire.
1822 Independence proclaimed (Greece).
1827 Greek State
1833 Kingdom of Greece
1924 Greek State
1925 Greek Republic
1935 Kingdom of Greece
1941 Italian - German occupation ( Greek State ) to 1944.
1943 Germans occupy Italian areas.
1944 Kingdom of Greece ( restored ).
1973 Hellenic Republic

@ Unknown and 1821 and 1822

1822 1832 and 1970 1975

1978 Now


Italy ( Italian Republic )
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  508 BC Roman Republic
    27 BC Roman Empire
  395 Divided de jure into Eastern Roman Empire ( Byzantium ) and Western Roman Empire.
  476 Odocader, germanic barbarian king in Italy to 493, from 493 Conquered by Byzantines, Lombards, Franks, Normans,

         Spanish, Austrians, and French.
1802 Italian Republic
1805 Kingdom of Italy
1814 Restoration of the independent states.
1861 Kingdom of Italy
1870 Rome annexed from the Papal State.
1936 Ethiopia annexed to 1941.
1939 Albania in personal union with Italy to 1943.
1943 Allied Military occupation to 1947.
1943 Northern Italy occupied by Germany ( Italian Social Republic ) to 1945.
1946 Italian Republic

@ 1802 1814 ... 1848 1944 1945 1946 Now

San Marino ( Republic of San Marino )
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  301 City founded; successively known as Land of San Marino, Free City of San Marino, and Republic of San Marino.
1243 Most Serene Republic of San Marino.
1291 Independence recognized by Papal State ( under Papal protectorate ).
1503 Under protection of Duchy of Urbino to 1632.
1797 Under protection of France to 1814.
1739 Occupied by Papal forces to 1740.
1862 Independence recognized by Italy ( under Italian protectorate ).
1944 Occupied by German forces.
1944 Occupied by Allied ( British ) forces.

@ Unknown 1862 Now

Vatican City ( The Holy See )
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    60 Church of Rome founded by the Apostle Peter.
  754 Donation of the Frankish ruler Pepin creates a temporal Papal State for the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church

         ( also called the Papal States or the States of the Church) .
1309 Popes rule from Avignon in France, referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Church" by historians to 1377.
1798 In rebellion: Roman Republic to 1798.
1809 Papal State annexed to France to 1814.
1831 In rebellion: United Italian Provinces to 1831.
1849 In rebellion: Roman Republic to 1849.
1870 Papal State annexed by Italy.
1870 Pope's rule as "Prisoners in the Vatican" in seclusion in the Vatican Palace to 1929.
1929 The Holy See ( State of Vatican City ) established; independence from Italy.

@ 1929 Now

Spain ( Kingdom of Spain )
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  711 Muslim conquest of the Iberian peninsula begins.
  718 Kingdom of Asturias founded.
  824 Kingdom of Navarre founded.
  910 Asturias split into three kingdoms: Asturias, Galicia, and León.
1035 Upon dynastic split the county of Aragón becomes an independent kingdom, from 1137 united with county of Barcelona.
1038 Count of Castille becomes king.
1230 Castille and León united.
1516 Under the Habsburg dynasty.
1556 Spanish Monarchy.
1580 Portugal in personal union with the Spanish monarchy to 1640.
1700 Under the Borbón dynasty.
1808 French occupation to 1813.
1813 Borbón dynasty restored.
1873 ( "First" ) Spanish Republic.
1874 Spanish Monarchy ( restored ).
1931 ( "Second" ) Spanish Republic to 1939.
1936 Spanish State
1947 Spain declared to be a kingdom.
1978 Spain, usually referred to as Kingdom of Spain.

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1230 1516 1843 1931 1936

1938 1945 1977 1981 Now


Portugal ( Portuguese Republic )
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1093 County of Portugal
1139 Kingdom of Portugal
1580 In personal union with Spain to 1640.
1807 Portugal occupied by France to 1808.
1808 Ruler and dynasty deposed in Portugal, and state governed in the name of France.
1815 United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazil, and Algarves.
1821 United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarve.
1822 Independence of Brazil declared by Brazil.
1823 United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazil, and Algarves.
1825 Kingdom of Portugal ( separated de jure from Brazil ).
1910 Portuguese Republic

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1143 1185 1248 1385 1485 1495

1578 1667 1706 1816 1830

1910 1911 Now


Malta ( Republic of Malta )
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  870 Under Arab rule.
1091 Norman rule.
1101 Part of the Kingdom of "Sicily" ( Naples ).
1330 Occupied by Kingdom of Aragón to 1382.
1530 Malta granted as a fiefdom to the Knights of St. John Hospitaller by Holy Roman Emperor Charles.
1530 Knights of St. John Hospitaller take possession.
1565 Ottoman siege of Malta to 1565.
1798 French occupation; Knights expelled.
1800 Capitulation of Valetta to the British.
1802 Malta be restored to the Knights of St. John and U.K. to withdraw.
1814 British crown colony.
1921 British colony.
1933 British crown colony.
1961 State of Malta
1964 Independence from Britain ( State of Malta ).
1974 Republic of Malta ( Repubblika Ta' Malta ).

@ 1530 1798 1800 1875

1898 1923 1944 1964 Now


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