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Spain
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Russia
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Belarus
Ukraine
Moldova
Poland
Romania
Bulgaria

* Yugoslavia : see Serbia   * Cyprus & Turkey : see East Asia

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Russia ( Russian Federation )

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  862 Grand Principality of Kiev Rus to 1240.
1147 Moscow founded.
1157 Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal to 1327.
1362 Kiev annexed to Lithuania.
1240 Russian states under Mongol suzerainty to 1480.
1327 Grand Principality of Vladimir and Moscow.
1348 Pskov Republic independent to 1510.
1462 Grand Principality Muscovy ( Moscow ).
1547 Russian Tsardom
1721 All-Russian Empire
1809 Personal union with Finland to 1917.
1812 French under Napoleon occupy Moscow.
1815 Personal union with Poland to 1916.
1906 Russian Empire ( or State of Russia )
1917 Russian Republic / Russian Soviet Republic, etc.
1918 Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) including Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, and

         Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia).
1925 Accession of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, Kazakhstan, Kirgiziya, Finno-Karelia, Moldavia,

          Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia to 1940.
1991 Recognition of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian independence.
1991 Final dissolution of the U.S.S.R.; R.S.F.S.R. independent as Russia.
1992 Russian Federation ( or Russia )

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1693 1693 1698 1712 1858

1914 1917 1918 1918 1920

1921 1937 1954 1991

1993 Now

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         USSR (Soviet Union)
               1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

              1922 1991


Estonia ( Republic of Estonia )

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1211 Estonian Bishopric, established by the bishop of Riga.
1219 Danish rule (Estonian Duchy) in Reval (Tallinn) and northern part of present-day Estonia.
1224 Estonian bishop takes temporal authority over the southern part as a sovereign prince-bishop of the Holy Roman Empire.
1237 Swordbrothers Order incorporated into the Teutonic Order as a separate branch or province, informally known as the Livonian Order.
1584 Territories annexed by Sweden are organized as the Duchy or Province of Estonia.
1721 Duchy of Estonia formally ceded by Sweden to Russia.
1775 Subordinated, to governors-general or other overall administrations of the Baltic Provinces to 1917.
1783 Province of Estonia, local autonomy is abolished.
1796 Limited local autonomy for Estonia restored.
1917 Bolshevik government abolishes autonomy.
1917 Estonian Provisional Province Assembly proclaimed itself as supreme power in Estonia.

1918 Estonian Liberation Committee appointed by the Provisional Government of Estonia declares independence ( Republic of Estonia ).
1918 Occupied by Germany, part of the Baltic State.
1918 Provisional government of Estonia founded on 1918 is restored ( Republic of Estonia [restored] ).
1918 Estonian Conciliar ( "Soviet" ) Republic to 1919.
1940 Occupied by the Soviet Union.
1940 Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
1940 Incorporation into Soviet Union ( not internationally recognized ).
1941 Occupied by Germany, part of Reichskommissariat of Ostland to 1944.
1944 Brief restoration of the Republic of Estonia.
1944 Reincorporation into the Soviet Union ( not internationally recognized ).
1990 Republic of Estonia
1991 Independence declared, recognized by Soviet Union.

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1561 1718 ... 1828 1858 1914 1917

1918 1918 1918 1918 1919

1940 1953 1990 Now


Latvia ( Republic of Latvia )

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  853 First written records of a state (Regnum Cori) in present-day Latvia.
1201 Seat of bishopric of Livonia moved from Üxküll (Ikskile) to the newly founded city of Riga.
1237 Swordbrothers Order is incorporated into the Teutonic Order as a separate branch or province.
1253 Archbishop of Livonia, Prussia and Estonia, previously having no separate diocese, becomes also the bishop of Riga.

1366 Already nominal suzerainty of archbishop of Riga over the possessions of the Livonian Order is formally abolished.
1413 Livonian knights are entitled to elect their Land-Master. The Livonian Order becomes fully autonomous.

1420 Livonian Confederation (Livländischer Bund) established.
1526 Land-Master of Livonian Order granted.

1621 Sweden occupies Livonia, and annexes it de jure 1660.

1701 Courland and Semigallia occupied by Sweden and Russia to 1709.
1889 Full integration of Livonia and Courland into the Russian Empire.
1915 Courland gradually occupied by the Germans.

1917 Autonomous Latvian Soviet government within the Russian Soviet Republic declared.

1918 German administrations for the Administrative Regions of Livonia, Estonia, Courland, Ösel and Riga.
1918 Independence of the Baltic State is recognized by Germany.
1918 Independence ( Republic of Latvia ) declared by the Latvian People's Council, formed in 1918.
1920 Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic dissolved, Soviet Russian troops leave in 1920,  independence recognized by Russia.
1940 Occupied by the Soviet Union, Renamed Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic.
1940 Incorporation into Soviet Union ( the move is not internationally recognized ).
1941 Gradually occupied by Germany.
1941 Independence of the Republic of Latvia declared.
1944 Gradually re-occupied by Soviets.
1945 Autonomous state ( Latvia ) declared under the German protectorate.
1945 Independence of the Republic of Latvia declared.
1990 Republic of Latvia
1991 Independence declared, recognized by Soviet Union.

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Unknown 1795 1858 1914 1917

1917 1918 1918 1918

1919 1920 1940 1953

1990 Now


Lithuania ( Republic of Lithuania )

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1203 Semi-legendary Grand Principality of Lithuania, ruled by a grand prince of Lithuania.
1251 Lithuania recognized as a state by Pope Innocent IV.
1401 Jogaila oversees the successive grand princes of Lithuania with the style "Supreme Prince of Lithuania"  to 1434.
1691 Lordships of Tauroggen (Taurage) and Serrey (Seiriai) in Prussian possession.
1702 Occupied by Sweden to 1709.
1772 First partition of Poland-Lithuania by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
1793 Second partition by Russia and Prussia.
1795 Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1795 Russian province of Vilenskaya Guberniya.
1797 Renamed Litovksaya Guberniya.
1801 Divided into two provinces: Vilenskaya and Grodnenskaya.
1812 Occupied by France.

1915 Lithuania ( Russian provinces of Kaunas and Vilnius ) gradually occupied by Germans. uania in Vilnius.
1917 Declaration of the reestablishment of Lithuanian independence by Lithuanian National Council.
1918 Full independence of State of Lithuania declared by Lithuanian Regional Council, which is renamed Lithuanian State Council.
1918 Monarchy abolished ( Republic of Lithuania ).
1918 Lithuanian Conciliar Republic ( in opposition to the Republic of Lithuania ), recognized by Soviet Russia.
1920 Independence recognized by Russia.
1940 Occupied by the Soviet Union.
1940 Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.
1940 Incorporation into Soviet Union ( not internationally recognized ).
1941 Gradually occupied by Germany.
1941 Independence of the Republic of Lithuania declared.
1944 Gradually re-occupied by the Soviet Union to 1945.
1990 Independence declared, Republic of Lithuania, recognized by Soviet Union.

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Unknown 1795 1858 1914 1917

1917 1918 1918 1918 1919

1919 1940 1941 1944

1953 1989 2004 Now


Belarus ( Republic of Belarus )

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  862 Polacak principality - Belarusian historical beginnings.
1240 Part of Lithuania.
1569 Part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1917 Reorganized as Great Belorussian Rada, claims autonomy for Belarus within Russia.
1918 German occupation.
1918 Independence ( Belorussian Republic ).
1918 Belorussian People's Republic proclaimed at Minsk by the Rada.
1919 Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (part of U.S.S.R).
1919 Part of "Litbel" ( Lithuanian-Belorussian S.S.R., see under Lithuania ).
1919 Polish occupation, Belorussian People's Republic ( restored ) under Polish occupation.
1920 Russian occupation, Soviet rule restored, Belorussian Rada again goes into exile.
1920 Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
1922 Founding component of Soviet Union.
1939 Western Belarus reincorporated into Byelorussian S.S.R.
1941 Occupied by Germany to 1944.
1991 Independence declared, Republic of Belarus.

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1828 1858 1914 1917 1918

1919 1919 1924 1940

1951 1991 1995 2012 Now


Ukraine ( Ukraine )
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  882 Grand Principality of Kiev Rus.
1327/1241 The Mongols subdue most of the regional principalities of Kiev Rus'.
1340/1363 Most of northern Ukraine part of Lithuania.
1569 In the Union of Lublin transferred from Lithuania to Poland.
1649 Recognized by Poland as autonomous Hetmanate, known as the Ukrainian Cossack Republic.
1654 Under Russian sovereignty.
1658 Under Polish sovereignty.
1667 Provisionally partitioned between Poland and Russia. Russia obtained Left-Bank.
1917 Declares itself autonomous within Russia.
1917 Ukrainian Democratic Republic
1917 Ukrainian People's Republic ( communist ) ( independence from Russia ).
1918 Ukrainian People's Republic  ( non-communist ) ( independence from Russia ).
1918 Soviet Russian occupation, German and Austro-Hungarian occupation.
1918 Ukrainian State
1918 Hetmanate of Ukraine
1918 Ukrainian People's Republic ( non-communist ) ( restored ).
1918 Allied occupation of Odessa to 1919.
1919 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic founded.
1921 Non-communist Ukraine absorbed by Soviet Ukraine.
1922 Founding component of the Soviet Union.
1941 Occupied by Germany to 1944.
1941 Ukrainian State ( not recognized, disbanded by Germany ).
1991 Independence as Ukraine ( dissolution of the U.S.S.R. ).

@ 1410 and Unknown  ... 1693  1693 1698

1712 1848 1917 1918 1918

1919 1923 1927 1930

1937 1940 1949 1991

1992 Now


Moldova ( Republic of Moldova )
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1526 Bessarabia ( Moldova ) part of the Ottoman Empire.
1788 Principality of Moldova and the southern part of the natural region of Transnistria were occupied by Russia.
1812 Bessarabia annexed by Russia.
1828 Bessarabia became a province of Russian.
1917 Moldavian Democratic Republic proclaimed within Russia.
1918 Council of State proclaims independence from Russia ( Moldavian Democratic Republic ).
1918 Incorporation into Romania.
1924 Moldavian A.S.S.R. established within the Ukrainian S.S.R. by Soviet Union.
1940 Bessarabia annexed by the Soviet Union ( from 1940, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic created ).
1941 Incorporation into Romania to 1944.
1947 Incorporation into the Soviet Union.
1990 Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova
1991 Republic of Moldova.
1991 Transdniester declares independence from Moldova ( not recognized ).
1991 Independence effective ( dissolution of U.S.S.R. ).
1994 Referendum rejects union with Romania.

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Unknown 1812 1858 1914 1917

1917 1918 1925 1929

1935 1937 1941 1944

1952 1990 Now


Poland ( Republic of Poland )
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1024 Polish Kingdom (Krolestwo Polskie).
1031 Polish Principality
1076 Polish Kingdom
1079 Polish Principality
1138 Division into several principalities.
1320 All Poland reunited into the Polish Kingdom with coronation of Wladyslaw I.
1702 Swedish occupation of large parts of Poland to 1710.
1772 First partition of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
1793 Second partition by Russia and Prussia.
1795 Upon the Third partition by Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
1807 Duchy of Warsaw ( in personal union with Saxony ).
1813 Duchy of Warsaw occupied by Russia to 1815.
1815 Republic of Kraków to 1846.
1815 Polish Kingdom, in union with Russia, established by the Congress of Vienna.
1915 Occupied by Germany and Austria-Hungary to 1918.
1916 Granted autonomy by Germany and Austria-Hungary.
1917 Polish Kingdom
1918 Polish State
1918 Polish Republic
1939 German invasion from the west.
1939 Soviet invasion from the east.
1939 The German-occupied area is partly annexed to Germany, on 1939 the other part becomes the General Government of Poland.
1941 Germany takes over the Soviet-occupied areas.
1944 Polish Republic
1952 Polish People's Republic
1989 Polish Republic

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1571 Unknown  ...  1600 Unknown 1795 ...  1807

1813 1815 1833 1858 1863

1863 and 1864 1914 1916

1919 1927 1939 1956 1990 Now


Romania ( Romania )
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1541 Moldavia and Walachia part of the Ottoman Empire.
1861 United Rumanian Principalities
1866 Rumania
1877 Independence from Ottoman Empire declared.
1878 Independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin.
1881 Kingdom of Rumania
1916 Occupied by Austria-Hungary and Germany to 1918.
1944 Occupied by Soviet Union to 1947.
1947 Rumanian People's Republic
1965 Socialist Republic of Rumania
1966 Spelling officially changed to Romania.
1989 Romania

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1859 1862 1866 1867 1872

1897 1922 1948 1952 1965

1989 Now


Bulgaria ( Republic of Bulgaria )
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  584 Bulgarian Khanate
  918 Bulgarian Empire
  972 Reincorporated into the Byzantine Empire.
  976 Second Bulgarian Empire to 1018.
1185 Bulgarian Empire ( restored ).
1395 Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1877 Russian occupation to 1879.
1879 Principality of Bulgaria ( under Ottoman suzerainty ) and separate autonomous territory of Eastern Rumelia.
1908 Tsardom ( Kingdom ) of Bulgaria.
1944 Occupied by Soviet Union to 1947.
1946 People's Republic of Bulgaria
1990 Republic of Bulgaria

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Unknown 1868 1877 1878 1908

1944 1946 1971 1990 Now


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